Unless, Until, if not, so that......

Unless, Until, if not, so that......


Unless and until are both used in the negative sense and do not need the use of `not’ in the sentence.

Unless is a conjunction that is used to indicate except on the condition that or under the circumstances that.

E.g. Unless you work hard, you will not pass the exam.

Or, The shirt will not become clean unless it is scrubbed well.

Until is a preposition that specifies up until the time of; and also as a conjunction stipulating before, or to the point or extent that;

E.g.

The young boy danced until the wee hours of the morning.

Or, He was unable to study until the noise next door stopped.

If not is an adverb indicating possibility of being better or greater or sooner.

E.g. Lets meet tomorrow night at 8pm, if not sooner.

Or, The builders are in the process of constructing a new mammoth building, which will be very tall, if not taller than the Burj Khalifa.

If not is used to indicate possibility of being greater, better or sooner.

So...that

So ...that indicates in order that or with the result or consequence that would happen. It is not followed by an infinitive like it does for the phrase `in order

that’.

E.g.

He had to work two jobs so that he could pay his rent and feed himself.

Or, The crowd on strike was so huge that it spilled onto the streets and blocked the road

Test your understanding - Choose the correct sentence from the pair of sentences given below

1.

a. Unless India plays well during the tournament, the team will lose against Pakistan.
b. Unless India plays well during the tournament, the team will not lose against Pakistan.

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ANSWER: a. Unless India plays well during the tournament, the team will lose against Pakistan.



2.
a. Don’t move from this spot until I call for you.
b. Don’t move from this spot until I do not call for you.

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ANSWER: a. Don’t move from this spot until I call for you.



3.
a. Investment in the new mutual fund will yield more than 15% in one year, if not more.
b. Investment in the new mutual fund will yielding less than 15% in one year, if not more.

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ANSWER: a. Investment in the new mutual fund will yield more than 15% in one year, if not more.



4.
a. I stopped playing the violin so that grandmother could take her afternoon nap.
b. I stopped playing the violin so my grandmother could take her afternoon nap.

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ANSWER: a. I stopped playing the violin so that grandmother could take her afternoon nap.
b. I stopped playing the violin so my grandmother could take her afternoon nap.



5.
a. While running the race, she fell down so often that she was covered in bruises.
b. While running the race, she fell down so often she was covered in bruises.

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ANSWER: a. While running the race, she fell down so often that she was covered in bruises.


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