What is project management?
Project management is a combination of operations such as applying knowledge,
skills, tools, techniques in a project followed by the deliverables of the
project. As whole project management is managing time, cost and the scope of a
-Generally the project management is the part of internal oganistional
-To perform all the tasks in the project execution we need an organitional
structure which will strategise the project execution & implementation.
-To carry out the project succesfully one must have a clearly defined goals
-There are several tools available for the successful project management in the
market.Most common names can be coined as PERT , CPM , MS_PROJECT , GANNT CHART
-The WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) is very important in the context of project
-The project management characteristics are complex,unique,involves high
risk,constrained by time & cost.
-The project management is very much resource intensive.
-Ultimately , the successeful project depends on the manger's efficiency,
effectivity & performing standard of the core manegerial activities , i.e.
planning , organizing , staffing , Directing , controlling & cordinating.
What is triple constraint triangle in project management?
Project cost, schedule and scope are depicted as a project management triangle.
The triangle is formed by customer as the center point and the three aspects
form the sides of triangle. In order to gain customer satisfaction, the project
management team should deliver scope in propose schedule and cost. In case any
leg is gets disturbed, the other two legs gets affected. For example, if the
customer increases the scope, then the other two legs-schedule and cost- get
affected a lot.
How do you handle change request?
The impact analysis document preparation followed by re-estimation is the
process of handling change request. For example, a table of customer is
available in the on going project. The customer also wants the addresses to
assign to the project. For that a change request is raised and then an impact
analysis of the same is performed. The estimation and the financial aspect of
the project are known to the client. The implementation of this change request
is continued by either by signing off the client or by agreement of the upper
What are the CSFs in the Software project management ?
The CSFs (critical success factors) for a successful software project management
are listed blow:
-Change management is very essential.
-Leadership & motivating employees for giving direction.
-Team Orientation is crucial.
-Cultural & ethnic diversity is also needed for maintaing a cordial
environment.As different companies around the world is having the EEo(equal
employability opportunity) foe their employees.
-The cost evaluation must be done diligently in the given time frame.
-Lucidity in communication is very essential.
What is DSS?
-DSS is the acronym stands for decision support system.
-DSS is used vastly in the enterprise applications , mainly MIS & ERP based
-DSS provides automation & stabilty in the decision making process of the
-DSS is of two types , i.e. structured & unstructured.
-DSS connects many flow charts in organisational process.
-DSS is used profoundly by the top level management for STRATEGY formulation
-DSS integrates many business logics with the organisational operational
-DSS can be formulated & built statistically or stochastically.
Describe software and its characteristics.
Software is a set of programs, which is designed to perform a well-defined task.
We cannot touch the Software but it is used by hardware. Computer hardware and
software are made for each other. Only hardware or software alone is useless.
There are different types of software and we can roughly categories it into two
Example: User defined program/software and other applications that user can
directly interact as Microsoft word, Microsoft Excel.
Example: Operating System and other program that supports application software.
Characteristics of software
Software is not touchable i.e. we cannot touch the software.
Software is not manufactured but it is developed by software engineers.
Software is not wear out as time goes on.
Describe the 4 P’s in software project management.
Software project management focuses on the four P’s: people, product, process,
The People: For success of any type of project, the most important factor is the
skilled people. These people participated actively for the success of project.
Software Engineering Institute has developed a people management capability
maturity model (PM-CMM), that guides the organization for improve the
capability of people and how to tackle complex applications.
The people management maturity model focus on the following key practice areas
for software people: recruiting, selection, performance management, training,
compensation, career development, organization and work design development. An
organization that follows PM-CMM in the people management area has a higher
success rate of software.
The Product: Before developing any software product objectives and scope should
be properly defined. The software analyst and customer must meet to define
product objectives and scope.
The Process: There are different types of model available that are used to
develop the software.
Linear sequential model
WINWIN spiral model
Component-based development model.
We can choose any model according to the need of software development
and need of customer.
The Project: For the success of any project we must understand the risk/problem
that may or may not come in future. According to John Reel the following ten
points indicate that an information systems project is in trouble:
1. Software people don’t understand their customer’s needs.
2. The product scope is poorly defined.
3. Changes are managed poorly.
4. The chosen technology changes.
5. Business needs change or are ill-defined.
6. Deadlines are unrealistic.
7. Users are resistant.
8. Sponsorship is lost or was never properly obtained.
9. The project team lacks people with appropriate skills.
10. Managers [and practitioners] avoid best practices and lessons learned
How does a project manager can avoid the above given ten points for the success
Reel suggests these five-part commonsense approaches to software projects:
1. Start on the right foot.
2. Maintain momentum.
3. Track progress.
4. Make smart decisions.
5. Conduct a postmortem analysis.
What is the W5HH (WWWWWHH) principle given by Barry Boehm?
Barry Boehm suggests an approach that addresses project objectives, scope,
schedules, responsibilities, management and technical approaches, and required
resources. He calls it the WWWWWHH principle.
Why is the system being developed?
What will be done, by when?
Who is responsible for a function?
Where are they organizationally located?
How will the job be done technically and managerially?
How much of each resource is needed?
What are the Framework Activities and Umbrella Activities?
Framework activities are those activities that are applicable for all types of
Engineering and construction
Umbrella activities are used in all the phase of SDLC. These activities are not
specific to any particular life cycle stage.
1. Software Project Management
2. Formal Technical Reviews
3. Software Quality Assurance
4. Software Configuration Management
5. Re-usability Management
6. Risk Management
7. Measurement and Metrics
8. Document Preparation and Production
Describe capability maturity model (CMM).
Every organization has some process to develop the software.
Software Engineering Institute (SEI) has developed a model that provides the
different levels of process maturity. In this model, in every level there are
some key activities required at different levels of process maturity. There are
five level of capability maturity model (CMM).
Level 1: Initial.
Level 2: Repeatable.
Level 3: Defined.
Level 4: Managed.
Level 5: Optimizing.
What is the difference between direct and indirect measures?
There are two types of measurement in software engineering process.
Direct measure and indirect measure.
Direct measures include cost and effort applied in the development of software.
Direct measures of the software include how many lines of code (LOC) produced,
execution speed, memory size, and defects reported.
Indirect measures include functionality, quality, complexity, efficiency,
reliability, and maintainability of the software.
Direct measure is easy to compute compare with indirect measure of software. We
can calculate the cost of the software development but it is difficult to
calculate the functionality and quality of the software.
Describe size oriented Metrics.
If a software organization maintains simple records, a table of size-oriented
metrics can be created. Size-Oriented Metrics mainly depends upon the size of
the software that has been produced. Size-oriented Metrics helps to quantify
software projects by using the size of the project to normalize other quality
measures. We will consider the following points while creating the table of
- number of lines of code
- number of person-months to complete
- cost of the project
- number of pages of documentation
- number of errors corrected before release
- number of bugs found after release
Describe Function-Oriented Metrics.
Function-Oriented Metrics uses the functionality of the software as the
normalization value. We cannot measure the functionality of the software
directly but it must be derived indirectly using other direct measures.
The concept of Function-Oriented Metrics is suggested by Albrecht who suggested
a measure called the function point. While calculating function point five
information domain values are considered.
- Number of user inputs
- Number of user outputs
- Number of user inquiries
- Number of files
- Number of external interfaces
To compute function points (FP), the following equation is used:
FP = count total *[0.65 + 0.01 * ?(Fi)]
Where count total is the sum of all FP entries and Fi (i = 1 to 14)
is complexity adjustment values.Fi value is based on 14 question. I have not
included these 14 questions here; you can get online help for these questions.
Each of these questions is answered using a scale that ranges from 0 to 5. Not
important-0, Incidental-1, Moderate-2, Average-3, Significant-4, Essencial-5
Compute the function point value for a project with the following information
Number of user inputs: 30
Number of user outputs: 60
Number of user inquiries: 24
Number of files: 8
Number of external interfaces: 2
Assume that all complexity adjustment values are average.
How will you measure software quality?
The following are main indicators to measure the software quality
Correctness, maintainability, integrity, and usability
Correctness: Software must satisfy the customer needs otherwise
it provides little value to its users. If the software is working according to
the customer needs then degree of correctness is high. Correctness is the
degree to which the software performs its required function. The most common
measure for correctness is defects per KLOC (thousands line of code).When
considering the overall quality of a software product, defects are those
problems reported by a user of the program after the software has been handover
to the customer.
Maintainability: Software maintenance and support is one of the
most important activities in software engineering. Maintainability or
maintenance software engineering is the removal of defects or modification of
software, after delivery of software to the customer, to improve the
performance it measured through indirect measure. A simple time-oriented metric
is mean-time-to-change (MTTC) is used to measure maintainability. It takes time
to analyze change request, design modification, testing and distribute the
change to all users.
Integrity: In general software is not hundred percent viruses
free. Integrity of software is measured in terms of Threat and Security.
Integrity =? [1 – (threat × (1- security))] -> Reference: Roger S. Pressman
Threat is the probability that an attack of a specific type will occur within a
given time. Security is the probability that the attack of a specific type will
be keep away.
Usability: Software developed by any organization must be easy
to use otherwise customer will not happy with you. Usability is an attempt to
quantify that how much your software is easy to use.
What is software project planning?
It is a set of activities that are collectively called project planning. In
project planning a software company considers the following points.
- Scope of the project.
- Feasibility analysis.
- Deadline of the project.
- Estimation of resource cost and schedule.
- Risk analysis.
- Overall Budget.
What is the meaning of scope of the project?
The functions and features that are to be delivered to the customer is called
the scope of the project. Performance, user interface design, and constraints
should meet the customer requirement. Software scope is can be developed after
communication with all members those are directly or indirectly involved in the
Describe resource planning during the estimation of software project.
There are three main categories of software engineering resource: people,
reusable software components, and the development environment.
i. Software tools.
iii. Network Resources.
(iii) Reusable software.
i. New components.
ii. Full-experience components.
iii. Part-experience components.
iv. COTS (Commercial off-the-shelf)) components.
Describe the above resource in detail.
There are many people involved while developing software project. The important
thing is that the involved people should be skilled, expert in their field and
dedicated. If the project is small, few people can manage the entire software
engineering task. If the project is very large it may be developed in different
geographical location. So, the location of each human resource is specified.
The number of people required for the project development can be determined
only after an estimate of development effort (e.g., person-months) and deadline
Software components provide the reusability. Already created DLL (components)
can be directly used in current software. These components have already tested
and used by team members. Organization can use the third party component that
is called Off-the-shelf components. Team members can use the components that
are available in the organization and have full experience with its
functionality. These components are called Full-experience components. If the
Members of the current software team have only limited experience in the
application area represented by these components and some modifications are
required then these components are called Partial-experience components.
Environmental Resources incorporates with hardware and software. All the
necessary hardware and software should be present to execute your project
Many times software delivery is late, why? Give reason.
There are many reasons for late delivery of software few of them are as follows.
- Deadline is unrealistic and decided by someone who has less technical
knowledge about project.
- Continue requirement change.
- The numbers of human resources are less that will be required to do the job.
- Future technical difficulties are not considered.
- Requirement is not properly provided by the project manager to the team
- Miscommunication among project team member that results in delays.
What are the different project scheduling techniques?
Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) and the critical path method
(CPM) are two project scheduling methods that can be applied to software
development. CPM provides critical path to analyze project and duration. PERT
TE = (O + 4M + P) / 6 formula for the expected completion time. Where
M=most likely time
TE =expected time
Describe the risk in software engineering.
Risk is a potential problem, it may come or it may not come while developing the
software. Risks are uncertain. It is a good idea to analysis the risk, what is
the chance to occur the risk, what will be the impact on the project and what
are the positive planes to overcome of these risks is. There are two types of
risk strategies: Reactive risk strategies and proactive risk strategies. In
reactive risk strategies software team come in action when something goes
wrong. A proactive risk strategy starts with long before technical work is
initiated. Potential risks are identified and their impacts are analyzed. Then,
the software team establishes a plan for managing risk.
What are the different types of software risks?
The different types of risks are as follows.
Project risks: This type of risk can destroy your project plan.
The release date of project may postpone further and cost will increase.
Technical risks: Due to technical risk implementation may
become difficult or impossible. Technical risks identify different types of
problem such as design, implementation, interface, verification, and
Business risks: There are different types of business risk such
as market risk, strategic risk, sales risk, management risk, budget risk.
What are the different Software Reengineering Activities?
Different software activities are as follows:
Inventory analysis: The inventory is nothing but a type of
spreadsheet model that contain detailed description of every active
application. It should be updated in regular time period.
Document restructuring: Legacy system can have poor
documentation or there is no documentation. Organization prepared documentation
for better understand of system but is very time consuming.
Reverse engineering: It is used to extract design information
from source code. We can understand the system by using reverse
Code restructuring: In legacy system some module have very poor
coding pattern so it is very difficult to understand, test and maintain. In
such cases, those module have coding problem, can be restructured.
Data restructuring: When data structure is weak, the data are
reengineered. A program with weak data structure will be difficult to accept
Forward engineering: Forward engineering is used to recovers
design information from existing software and uses this information to change
the existing system. It will improve the overall quality of the
Name some requirement gathering techniques
Why is easy access to a customer a good thing?
When should you end the process of gathering requirements?
Why is a simple change control process necessary for agile projects?
Why do requirements change?.................
Lastest answer: The different phases of software projects are
Lastest answer: Waterfall model, Spiral Model, Build and fix
model, Rapid Prototype Model,Incremental Model..............
Lastest answer: CAR – Casual analysis and
Lastest answer: It is one way of tackling problem in
management. It says 20% of the.............
Lastest answer: At this level, there is no proven processes and
has no stable environment in the organization. This type of
Lastest answer: Fish Bone Diagram is also called Ishikawa
Diagram or Cause and Effect Diagram.............
Lastest answer: White box testing is done to test the accuracy
of logic and code of the program. It is done by programmers.............
Lastest answer: Unit testing, also called Component testing is
performed by programmers to test that a specified unit of the program meets the
expected output when a particular input is.............
Lastest answer: It is a methodology and set of tools for the
measurement of process quality. It demonstrates that the business..............
Lastest answer: FPA is a process to break system into discrete
Project Management Interview questions with answers - August 11, 2008 at
13:10 pm by Rajmeet Ghai
Explain the PDCA cycle.
What are white-box, black-box and gray-box testing?
Explain the difference between Latent and Masked Defect.
What is Big-bang waterfall model?
What is configuration Management?
What is Boundary value Analysis?
What is Equivalence Partitioning?
Explain Random testing.
What is Monkey testing?
Explain Software Process.
What is Maturity level?
What is process area in CMMI?
Explain about tailoring.
What are staged and continuous models in CMMI?
Explain capability levels in continuous representation.
What is SCAMPI process?
What is the importance of PII in SCAMPI?
What are the different kinds of variations used in SIX Sigma?
Explain how to perform load-testing.
What is Table-Driven testing?
What is TPA Analysis?
Explain function points.
Explain the concept of Application Boundary
Web applications that involve a number of concurrent users. E.g. Shopping
The biggest bottleneck in performance testing is that it requires well
experienced man power.............
A very common task in security testing is trying to attack the system. This
helps in finding out how vulnerable.............
Minimize rights, Update permissions, Delete default data and