What is project management?Project management is a combination of operations such as applying knowledge, skills, tools, techniques in a project followed by the deliverables of the project. As whole project management is managing time, cost and the scope of a project.
- Generally the project management is the part of internal organizational functions.
- To perform all the tasks in the project execution we need an organization structure which will strategies the project execution & implementation.
- To carry out the project successfully one must have a clearly defined goals & objectives.
- There are several tools available for the successful project management in the market.Most common names can be coined as PERT , CPM , MS_PROJECT , GANNT CHART etc.
- The WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) is very important in the context of project management .
- The project management characteristics are complex,unique,involves high risk,constrained by time & cost.
- The project management is very much resource intensive.
- Ultimately , the successful project depends on the manger's efficiency, effectivity & performing standard of the core managerial activities , i.e. planning , organizing , staffing , Directing , controlling & coordinating.
What is triple constraint triangle in project management?Project cost, schedule and scope are depicted as a project management triangle. The triangle is formed by customer as the center point and the three aspects form the sides of triangle. In order to gain customer satisfaction, the project management team should deliver scope in propose schedule and cost. In case any leg is gets disturbed, the other two legs gets affected. For example, if the customer increases the scope, then the other two legs-schedule and cost- get affected a lot.
How do you handle change request?The impact analysis document preparation followed by re-estimation is the process of handling change request. For example, a table of customer is available in the on going project. The customer also wants the addresses to assign to the project. For that a change request is raised and then an impact analysis of the same is performed. The estimation and the financial aspect of the project are known to the client. The implementation of this change request is continued by either by signing off the client or by agreement of the upper management.
What are the CSFs in the Software project management ?The CSFs (critical success factors) for a successful software project management are listed blow:
-Change management is very essential.
-Leadership & motivating employees for giving direction.
-Team Orientation is crucial.
-Cultural & ethnic diversity is also needed for maintaing a cordial environment.As different companies around the world is having the EEo(equal employability opportunity) foe their employees.
-The cost evaluation must be done diligently in the given time frame.
-Lucidity in communication is very essential.
What is DSS?-DSS is the acronym stands for decision support system.
-DSS is used vastly in the enterprise applications , mainly MIS & ERP based SYSTEMS.
-DSS provides automation & stabilty in the decision making process of the organisation .
-DSS is of two types , i.e. structured & unstructured.
-DSS connects many flow charts in organisational process.
-DSS is used profoundly by the top level management for STRATEGY formulation & planning.
-DSS integrates many business logics with the organisational operational functions.
-DSS can be formulated & built statistically or stochastically.
Describe software and its characteristics.Software is a set of programs, which is designed to perform a well-defined task. We cannot touch the Software but it is used by hardware. Computer hardware and software are made for each other. Only hardware or software alone is useless. There are different types of software and we can roughly categories it into two types.
Example: User defined program/software and other applications that user can directly interact as Microsoft word, Microsoft Excel.
Example: Operating System and other program that supports application software.
Characteristics of software
- Software is not touchable i.e. we cannot touch the software.
- Software is not manufactured but it is developed by software engineers.
- Software is not wear out as time goes on.
Describe the 4 P’s in software project management.Software project management focuses on the four P’s: people, product, process, and project.
The People: For success of any type of project, the most important factor is the skilled people. These people participated actively for the success of project.
Software Engineering Institute has developed a people management capability maturity model (PM-CMM), that guides the organization for improve the capability of people and how to tackle complex applications.
The people management maturity model focus on the following key practice areas for software people: recruiting, selection, performance management, training, compensation, career development, organization and work design development. An organization that follows PM-CMM in the people management area has a higher success rate of software.
The Product: Before developing any software product objectives and scope should be properly defined. The software analyst and customer must meet to define product objectives and scope.
The Process: There are different types of model available that are used to develop the software.
- Linear sequential model
- Prototyping model
- RAD model
- Incremental model
- Spiral model
- WINWIN spiral model
- Component-based development model.
We can choose any model according to the need of software development and need of customer.
The Project: For the success of any project we must understand the risk/problem that may or may not come in future. According to John Reel the following ten points indicate that an information systems project is in trouble:
1. Software people don’t understand their customer’s needs.
2. The product scope is poorly defined.
3. Changes are managed poorly.
4. The chosen technology changes.
5. Business needs change or are ill-defined.
6. Deadlines are unrealistic.
7. Users are resistant.
8. Sponsorship is lost or was never properly obtained.
9. The project team lacks people with appropriate skills.
10. Managers [and practitioners] avoid best practices and lessons learned
How does a project manager can avoid the above given ten points for the success of project.Reel suggests these five-part commonsense approaches to software projects:
1. Start on the right foot.
2. Maintain momentum.
3. Track progress.
4. Make smart decisions.
5. Conduct a postmortem analysis.
What is the W5HH (WWWWWHH) principle given by Barry Boehm?Barry Boehm suggests an approach that addresses project objectives, scope, schedules, responsibilities, management and technical approaches, and required resources. He calls it the WWWWWHH principle.
- Why is the system being developed?
- What will be done, by when?
- Who is responsible for a function?
- Where are they organizationally located?
- How will the job be done technically and managerially?
- How much of each resource is needed?
What are the Framework Activities and Umbrella Activities?Framework activities are those activities that are applicable for all types of application.
- Project definition
- Engineering and construction
- Customer use
Umbrella activities are used in all the phase of SDLC. These activities are not specific to any particular life cycle stage.
1. Software Project Management
2. Formal Technical Reviews
3. Software Quality Assurance
4. Software Configuration Management
5. Re-usability Management
6. Risk Management
7. Measurement and Metrics
8. Document Preparation and Production