Networking - Explain the classes of IP address

Explain the classes of IP address

IP addresses are organized into classes. For convenience of humans, IP addresses are expressed in the decimal format. Every number in each class is represented as binary to computers.

The four numbers in an IP address are known as ‘octets’. Each of them has eight bit positions. The octets are divided into two sections: Net and Host. The first octet represents Net for identifying the network and the Host contains the last octet. There are five IP classes.

- Class A: The class A is used for very large networks. There are 1 to 126 are part of this class. That means there are 126 Class A networks. Class A networks accounts for half of the total available IP addresses.

- Class B: It is used for medium size networks. The IP address with a first octet from 128 to 191 is part of this class. Class B networks have a first bit value of 1 and a second bit value of 0 in the first octet.

- Class C: Class C is used for small to middle size networks. IP address with a first octet starts from 192-223. Class C networks have a first bit value of 1, second bit value of 1 and a third bit value of 0 in the first octet.

- Class D: It has first, second and third bit value as 1 and the fourth bit as 0. The other 28 bits are used for identifying the group of computers which is intended for multicast messages.

- Class E: Class E is used for identification purpose. The four bits value is 1. The other 28 bits are used for identifying the group of computers which is intended for multicast messages.

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