Describe software review and formal technical review (FTR).
Software reviews works as a filter for the software process. It helps to uncover
errors and defects in software. Software reviews enhance the quality of
software. Software reviews refine software, including requirements and design
models, code, and testing data.
A formal technical review (FTR) is a software quality control activity. In this
activity, software developer and other team members are involved. The
objectives of an FTR are:
- Uncover the errors.
- Verify that the software under technical review meets its requirements.
- To ensure that the software must follow the predefined standards.
- To make projects more manageable.
The FTR includes walkthroughs and inspections. Each FTR is conducted as a normal
meeting. FTR will be successful only if it is properly planned, and executed.
What are the attributes of good test case?
The following are the attributes of good test case.
- A good test has a high probability of finding an error. To find the maximum
error, the tester and developer should have complete understanding of the
software and attempt to check all the conditions that how the software might
- A good test is not redundant. Every test should have a different purpose from
other, otherwise tester will repeat the testing process for same condition.
- A good test should be neither too simple nor too complex. In general, each
test should be executed separately. If we combine more than one test into one
test case, it might be very difficult to execute. Sometimes we can combine
tests but it may hide some errors.
Describe cyclomatic complexity with example.
Cyclomatic complexity is a software metric that measure the logical strength of
the program. It was developed by Thomas J. McCabe. Cyclomatic complexity is
calculated by using the control flow graph of the program. In the flow graph,
nodes are represented by circle. Areas bounded by edges and nodes are called
regions. When counting regions, we also include the area outside the graph as a
Complexity is computed in one of three ways:
The total number of regions of the flow graph.
By using the formula defined as:
V(G) = E - N + 2
Cyclomatic complexity, V(G), for a flow graph, G, is also defined
V(G) = P + 1 ,where P is the number of predicate nodes contained in the flow
Note: Nodes that contain a condition is called a predicate node and is
characterized by two or more edges originating from it.
Find out the Cyclomatic complexity V(G) of the given below flow graph.
In the above flow graph there are total 9 nodes, 11 edges, and 4 regions.
1. The flow graph has four regions.
2. V(G) = 11 edges- 9 nodes + 2 = 4.
3. V(G) = 3 predicate nodes + 1 = 4.
Describe Condition testing in brief.
Condition testing works on logical conditions contained in a program module. A
simple condition is a Boolean variable or a relational expression. A relational
expression takes the form
Where E1 and E2 are arithmetic expressions and <relational-operator> is
one of the following: <, ≤,=, ≠ (not equal to), >, or ≥. A compound
condition is created by using two or more simple conditions, Boolean operators,
and parentheses. Conditional error is generated if Boolean variable, relational
operator or Boolean operator is incorrectly used.
The purpose of condition testing is to detect errors in the conditions of a
1.What are the common problems
with software automation?
2. What is the role of QA in a project
3. What is the value of a testing
group? How do you justify your work and budget?
4. What are the key
challenges of software testing?
5. What are the roles of
glass-box and black-box testing tools?
6. What is the difference in
writing the test cases for Integration testing and system testing?
7. What is "bug leakage?" and
what is "bug release?"
8. How do you develop a test plan and
schedule? Describe bottom-up and top-down approaches.
9. What's the role of CMM Level in
10. What is the difference between build
11. What is risk analysis? What does it have
to do with Severity and Priority?
12. How do you differentiate the
roles of Quality Assurance Manager and Project Manager?
13. Explain Software Testing. Why is it important
to conduct the testing of a software?
14. Explain a.) Quality Assurance b.) Quality Control
c.) Test Case d.) Test Condition e.) Test Script f.) Test Data g.) Test Bed
15. Differentiate between a.) Testing and
Debugging b.) Two tier and Three tier architecture c.) Alpha testing and Beta
testing d.) Static testing and dynamic testing
16. Explain a.)Recovery Testing b.)Integration Testing
c.)Incremental Testing d.)Architecture based software testing e.)Disaster
17. What is a software project test plan?
18. When do you choose automated
testing over manual testing?
19. Differentiate between a.) Software
Quality Assurance and Software Quality Control b.) Severity and Priority c.)
Clear box testing and Ad-hoc Testing
20. What is Software
Quality and Software Configuration Management?
21. Explain a.)Upward Compression testing
b.)Usability Testing c.)Gray box testing d.)Structural Testing e.) Reliability
22. Differentiate between smoke testing and
23. Exlpain a.) Test Methodology b.) Test
Scenario c.) Test Case d.) Requirement traceability matrix
What is STLC?
25. What would you do if you see a
functionality in the software which was not there in the requirements?
26. What is automation testing?
Can automating a test improve the effectiveness of test?
27. What are the various automation
tools availble in testing? How will you decide on a tool for test automation?
28. How would you plan test automation?
29. Can automation testing
replace manual testing? Explain your answer.
30. What are the benefits of
31. What type of problems can arise due
to test automation?
32. What are the various testing
activities that you may want to automate?
33. What are the scripting
techniques available for test automation?
34. Explain data-driven automation.
35. Is it possible to
automate the activities of test case design? Explain.
36. What can be the
limitations of automating software testing?
37. What are principles of
good testing scripts for automation?
38. What testing activities would
you automate in a testing project?
39. What skills would you look for
in an automation tester?
40. Explain a.) Stress testing b.)Load
41. Explain a.) Verify mode b.)
Debug mode c.) Update mode
42. Situation: You want to perform
backend testing with the help of SQL scripts for verification of data
integrity. How would you do that?
43. Situation: You want to
verify the font size and program in a program. You do not have access to the
code. How would you approach this?
44. What naming
conventions do you use while naming the automated test scripts?
45. Differentiate between
GUI checkpoint and synchronization.
46. Explain a.) Memory
leaks b.) Configuration management c.) Buffer overflows d.) Automation test
47. Situation: You are required to
find someone's password using winrunner. How would you do that?
48. What is the difference between
versions 7.6, 8.0, 8.2 of winrunner?
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Latest answer: PDCA cycle stands for Plan
Do Check Act; commonly used for quality control.Plan: Identify aim and
procedure necessary to deliver the output..................
Latest answer: White Box testing:
white box testing involves thorough testing of the application. It requires
knowledge of code and the test cases chosen verifies if the system is
implemented as expected...............
Latest answer: Latent defects are defects
which remain in the system, however, identified later. They remain in the
system for a long time.................
Latest answer: The waterfall model is also
known as the Big-bang model because all modules using waterfall module follows
the cycle independently and then put together.................
Latest answer: Configuration management
aims to establish consistency in an enterprise. This is attained by
continuously updating processes of the organization, maintaining versioning and
Verification: To check if we are doing the
Inspection: Typical walkthroughs, software reviews,
technical reviews, and formal inspections.............
Requirement Traceability verifies that each functional
requirement used in the development matches to those that were written in the
test cases based on other artifacts...............
Pilot testing: is done by group of users who try to test the
system prior its full deployment to provide the feedback about the
Software risk analysis is done to determine what to test,
priorities, and coverage of testing. It might even include what not to test
Walkthroughs: Author presents their
developed artifact to an audience of peers. Peers question and comment on the
artifact to identify as many defects as possible....................
Various Test plan documents are: Master Test Plan: This is
the most important test plan document. It uses the reference of various other
documents, artifacts used for the system. It defines testing at all levels. It
even includes the reference to subordinate test plans. Also, consists of test
concept and summary test plan..................
Unlike the big bang waterfall model, the phased model is
suitable if the work can be grouped into separate units and delivered in steps
rather than everything once and together, by different teams. Consider a system
that consists of 4 subsystems,...................
The iterative model approach is to iterate on steps as the
project progresses with requirements. Iterative model iterates Requirements,
The iterative model approach is to iterate on steps as the
project progresses with requirements. Iterative model iterates
The spiral model follows creation of a series of prototypes
for refining the understanding of the requirements. The kind of approach is
best suited to projects that are not at all clearly defined and a clear
solution is yet to be arrived at..................
All the models suffer from the disadvantage that the
duration of time from start of the project to the delivery time of a solution
is very high....................
It describes how the test approach is developed so that it
can be executed in parallel with the designing and development/build
The input data is divided into partitions and values are
chosen from each partition from which the test cases are derived to perform the
It is a way to depict a complex logical situation. It helps
in figuring out what is to be done under what circumstances...................
Not all requirements are equally important. Some are more
relevant to the main purpose of the system. Severity refers to the impact a
defect may have on the system....................