HIV-AIDS,Cancer - General awareness questions on current affairs

1)   Which bill aims at equal rights while seeking treatment, education and job by HIV positive people?

a. HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill 2014
b. HIV Prevention and Control Bill 2014
c. AIDS Prevention and Control Bill 2014
d. None of the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill 2014

Explanation:
The HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill, 2014, aimed at ensuring equal rights while seeking treatment, education and job by people living with HIV, was passed by the Rajya Sabha on March 21, 2017.

The Bill also assumes significance as it protects such people from specific acts of discrimination by the state, or any other person.

It also lays down penal provisions for any discrimination practised against a person with HIV/AIDS and breach of confidentiality.

Under the Bill, central and state governments are obliged to provide for anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and management of opportunistic infections (infections that take advantage of weakness in the immune system and occur frequently).

The protection mandated in the Bill extends to the fields of employment, healthcare services, educational services, public facilities, property rights, holding public office, and insurance.

Though the Bill was initially introduced in the Parliament by the UPA government, the amendments to the HIV and AIDS (Prevention and Control) Bill, 2014 were revived by the Modi government in July 2016.

During the debate on the measure, many members suggested amending the Section 14(1) of the bill, to remove the phrase "as far as possible" for providing medical treatment by the Centre and the states to those infected with HIV and AIDS.

Rules will have provision to provide justification for denying treatment to the patients.

A large number of members were of the view that the phrase 'as far possible' would defeat the purpose of the bill as it provides a leeway to the Centre and the states.

Changes in the Bill

  • Bill now makes anti-retroviral treatment a legal right for all HIV/AIDS patients.
  • It has also adopted "test and treat" policy which means any person testing positive will be entitled for free treatment by the state and central government.
  • Earlier, this was restricted by a CD4 count rate.
  • It also provides for confidentiality of HIV-related information and makes it necessary to get informed consent for undertaking HIV tests, medical treatment and research.
  • The Bill also provides for fast tracking of cases relating to HIV positive persons by courts on a priority basis.
  • In any legal proceeding, if an HIV infected or affected person is a party, the court may pass orders that the proceedings be conducted (a) by suppressing the identity of the person, (b) in camera, and (c) to restrain any person from publishing information that discloses the identity of the applicant.
  • When passing any order with regard to a maintenance application filed by an HIV infected or affected person, the court shall take into account the medical expenses incurred by the applicant.


2)   Which medicinal plant endemic to Western Ghats and Sri Lanka can cure cancer, wounds and burns?

a. Neurocalyx calycinus
b. Neurocalyx dalycinus
c. Neurocalyx talycinus
d. Neurocalyx kalycinus
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Neurocalyx calycinus

Explanation:
A medicinal plant endemic to the southern parts of Western Ghats and Sri Lanka could offer scientists the key to new herbal formulations.

It could also pave the way for modern drugs for the treatment of cancer and wounds and burns.

Scientists at the Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute (JNTBGRI) here have confirmed the multiple therapeutic properties of Neurocalyx calycinus.

This herb used by the Cholanaickan tribe, one of the particularly vulnerable groups in Kerala, to treat inflammations and wounds.

The researchers have filed for a patent on a novel herbal drug formulation possessing wound-healing, burn-healing, anti-cancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immuno- enhancing, platelet-augmentation and anti-oxidant effects.

The scientists came to know of the miracle plant in 1988 during a biological survey deep inside the Nilambur forests.

Neurocalyx calycinus is known as pacha chedi in local language.

Animal trials have proved that the leaves of N.calycinus possess wound-healing properties comparable to the standard drug Povidone/ Iodine in the early phase of inflammation.

The anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves was found comparable to the drug diclofenac sodium.

The pre-clinical trials confirmed the therapeutic effects of N.calycinus against burn wounds and pain, besides its immuno-enhancing, platelet augmentation, and anti-oxidant potential.

The presence of high Vitamin E content and potent cytoprotective activity in cell lines in the plant species have also enhanced the prospects of developing an anti-cancer drug.

In a presentation that won the best paper award at the Kerala Science Congress, Aneesh kumar AL, a researcher, said the work had thrown up promising leads for the development of novel herbal formulations and modern medicines.

Pada Chedi: Know More

  • Neurocalyx calycinus is a shrub endemic to South West India.
  • It is found in evergreen forests.
  • Recent researches suggests this plant has wound-healing, burn-healing, anti-cancer, analgesic, anti-inflammatory.
  • Genus: Neurocalyx
  • Order: Gentianales
  • Rank: Species


3)   Piperlongumine is concerned with

a. Anti-malarial drugs
b. Cure for Zika
c. Organic farming
d. Anti-cancer properties
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Anti-cancer properties

Explanation:

  • The Indian long pepper, widely popular for spicing up food, may soon be used as a potential cancer treatment drug, according to a new study.
  • The Indian long pepper contains a chemical that could stop your body from producing an enzyme that is commonly found in tumours in large numbers.
  • UT Southwestern Medical Enter scientists have uncovered the chemical process behind anti-cancer properties of a spicy Indian pepper plant called the long pepper, whose suspected medicinal properties date back thousands of years.
  • The secret lies in a chemical called Piperlongumine (PL), which has shown activity against many cancers including prostate, breast, lung, colon, lymphoma, leukaemia, primary brain tumours and gastric cancer.
  • PL converts to hPL, an active drug that silences a gene called GSTP1.
  • The GSTP1 gene produces a detoxification enzyme that is often overly abundant in tumours.


4)   IMAGIN is related to

a. Cancer treatment
b. New technology to showcase media content
c. E-governance
d. None of the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Cancer treatment

Explanation:
Low cost radiotherapy equipment like Bhabhatron, IMAGIN, developed indigenously has been donated by Government of India to various countries like Kenya, Mongolia, etc.

Imagin simulator is used for localization of treatment areas and for verification of treatment plans prior to starting treatment.

Therapy Simulator helps in localizing the radiation port onto target tumor location and give a quality assured radiotherapy for better treatment outcome.

IMAGIN has advanced CBCT Imaging capability for accurate image acquisition and reconstruction in one gantry rotation.


5)   Scientists have identified a defect in which protein factory of the cell in patients with multiple myeloma?

a. Ribosome
b. Lysosome
c. Chromosome
d. None of the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Ribosome

Explanation:
Scientists have identified a defect in the ribosome, the protein factory of the cell in 20-40 per cent of the patients with multiple myeloma which is a type of leukaemia.

These patients have a poorer prognosis than patients with intact ribosomes, the scientists said.

In MM patients, one part of the ribosome is produced less in 20 to 40 per cent of the patients, depending on how aggressive the cancer is.

Cells are still producing protein, but that the balance is somewhat disrupted.

One possible treatment for MM is the use of proteasome inhibitors which is the protein demolition machine in a cell. How the defects in the ribosome influence the proteasome is not quite clear yet.

Tests can now be developed to identify defects in the ribosome and thus determine which therapy will have most effect in a specific patient.

Finding that cancer is related to ribosome defects is a relatively new concept in science.

What is Multiple Myeloma?

  • MM is also called Kahler’s disease.
  • It is a type of Blood cancer in which bone marrow cells start increasing rapidly. It is common among older people.


6)   World HIV AIDS day was celebrated on which day?

a. Dec 1st
b. Dec 2nd
c. Dec 3rd
d. Dec 4th
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Dec 1st

Explanation:
World AIDS Day was celebrated on Dec 1st 2016 across the world. The theme was HandsUp for #HIVPrevention.

The campaign #HIVprevention explores various aspects of HIV prevention and how they relate to specific groups of people such as young women and adolescent girls, key populations and people living with HIV. The Joint UN programme on HIV-AIDS (UNAIDS) hosted a special event on 30th Nov 2016 to observe the day.

The commitment to move forward and end AIDS epidemic by the year 2030 was also voiced as part of SDGs.

A report entitled “Get on the Fast Track: The Life Cycle Approach to HIV” by UNAIDS shows countries getting on the fast track, with 1m people accessing treatment in 6 months from January to June 2016.

The report was launched on 21 November 2016 in Windhoek, Namibia, by the President of Namibia, Hage Geingob and the Executive Director of UNAIDS, Michel Sidibé.

By June 2016, around 18.2 million people had access to the life-saving medicines, including 910000 children.

If these efforts are continued and amplified, the world will be on track to achieve the target of 30 million people on treatment by 2020.

About World AIDS Day

  • Conceived in 1987.
  • Proposed by : Public information officers of WHO, James Bunn and Thomas Nette.
  • In 1996, UNAIDS started functioning. It took over planning and promotion of World AIDS day.
  • First World AIDS Day: 1988

  • Some statistics on AIDS

  • 18.2m people: Accessing antiretroviral therapy (June 2016).
  • 36.7m people: Living with HIV(2015).
  • 2.1m people: Newly infected with HIV(2015).
  • 78m people: Infected with HIV since start of epidemic (2015).
  • 35m people: Died from AIDS related illness since epidemic began (2015).


7)   Quercetin is

a. National Award winner movie
b. Treatment for Zika virus
c. Anti-cancer compound
d. Anti-TB compund
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Anti-cancer compound

Explanation:

  • IISc Bangalore concluded study on quercetin recently and found it to be extremely useful for cancer patients.
  • Quercetin, known to cause anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity, reportedly induces ‘apoptosis,’ a process by which cells commit suicide in a controlled manner.
  • The compound may also prevent multiplication of cancerous cells by blocking the process of cell division.
  • It can even kill the highly aggressive leukaemia cell line K562, which is resistant to most anti-cancer drugs.
  • It is an originally purified compound, which is now also commercially purified and sold.
  • It was found to have no adverse effects on the non-cancerous cells even while killing the cancerous ones, including in the experimental animals.


8)   Which of the following is/are uses of Strontium-90?

1) Treatment of bone cancer
2) Radioactive tracer
3) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators


a. 2, 3
b. 1, 2
c. 1, 3
d. All of the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: All of the above

Explanation:

  • The radioactive decay of strontium-90 generates a significant amount of heat. It is used as a heat source in many Russian/Soviet radioisotope thermoelectric generators, usually in the form of strontium titanate.
  • Sr-90 finds use in industry as a radioactive source for thickness gauges.
  • Sr-90 finds extensive use in medicine as a radioactive source for superficial radiotherapy of some cancers. Controlled amounts of Sr-90 and Sr-89 can be used in treatment of bone cancer.
  • It is also used as a radioactive tracer in medicine and agriculture.


9)   What is Bhabhatron?

a. Cancer treatment machine
b. Nuclear reactor
c. Shyamji Krishna Verma
d. Dadabhai Naoroji
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Cancer treatment machine

Explanation:

  • Bhabhatron, the indigenous telecobalt machine, is one of the successful products developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai for cancer treatment.
  • The machine is cheaper than imported ones and has superior features.
  • Cobalt-60 is used as source in the Bhabhatron.
  • Recently the PM handed a Bhabhatron to Kenya.


10)   Researchers discover new non-invasive method to kill cancer cells in 2 hours- what chemical compound does it use?

a. Nitrobenzaldehyde
b. Carbonbenzaldehyde
c. Heliumbenzaldahyde
d. None of the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Nitrobenzaldehyde

Explanation:
Researchers have developed a new, non-invasive method to kill cancer cells in two hours, which will help people with inoperable or hard to reach tumours as well as young children stricken with deadly disease

  • Method involves the injection of a chemical compound called nitrobenzeldahyde which turns the tumour into diffused tissues
  • A beam of light is focused on the tissue causing the cells to become acidic inside out and kill themselves
  • Within two hours, close to 95 percent of the targeted cells are dead or estimated to be so
  • Induced cell suicide is the method that therefore works to deal with deadly diseases like triple negative breast cancer


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