Animal testing is necessary for mankind
Animal testing is necessary for mankind
Animal experimentation, also known as animal research, and in vivo testing is being made one of the most problematic issue now a days. It's estimated that the number of vertebrate animal ranges from the tens of millions to more than hundred millions used annually throughout the world. The research and testing are undertaken by medical institutions, university, pharmaceutical companies, commercial establishments that provide animal testing service to industry. It include pure research as well as applied research. Pure research include genetics, developmental biology and behavioural studies whereas applied research include biomedical research, drug testing, cosmetic testing and technology tests. These activities are carried out for the betterment of mankind but then it cannot be denies that cruelty on animals in such a large scale is inhumane.
1. The logic of calling animal testing cruel and inhumane scientific practice is not justified altogether. Virtually every medical objective achieved in 20th century relied on the use of animals in alternate ways. Experiments on animals are necessary to advance medical and biological knowledge. New researches cannot be experimented on humans to know their efficacy and side effects.
2. Even the best and ultra advanced computers are unable to identify interaction between molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms and the environment which obviously making animals testing mandatory in most of the fields of research.
3. Animal testing has enabled scientists to discover many treatments of life-risking disease and opened ways towards the generation of cure to diseases such as diabetes, brain injury, breast cancer, childhood leukaemia, ulcers, malaria, tuberculosis and many others harmful disease. The experiment in which dogs had their pancreas removed led directly to the discovery of insulin, ultimately saving the life of diabetics across the globe
4. Animals are suitable research subjects, as they are relatively similar to human beings in many ways. Chimpanzees share 99% of their DNA with human and mice are 98% genetically similar to humans. All mammals, including humans have almost the same set of organs that function in the same way with the help of blood stream and central nervous system. This makes testing of drugs effective to know the effects before applying the same on humans.
5. Animal testing in more than one way has proved to be beneficiary to animals as well. Millions of animals would have succumbed to rabies, distemper, infectious hepatitis virus, etc, if vaccines have not been tested on animals. It has also been instrumental in saving endangered species from extinction.
6. Some cosmetics and health products must be tested on animals to ensure human safety. Women as well as men use a number of cosmetic and personal care products for to look presentable and confident. Thus, in order to ensure human safety these products need to be prior tasted on animals.
1. Most animals are euthanized after being used in experiments. This practice is regulated worldwide and tends to be brutal and inhumane where the cost of research overcomes the benefits. Animals have an intrinsic rights of not to be used or harmed in experimentation.
2. Animal testing is a form of miserable torture where vertebrate animals are subjected to distinctive harm, or even death. It's unjust that researches and experiments are done premeditated to be reliable on animal tests with the view that the benefits to people could justify the harm to animals. Animals are subjected to force feedings, forced inhalation, food and water deprivation, the infliction of burns and other injuries to consider the effect and healing process.
3. The first animal protection law was enacted in the British parliament in 1822, followed by the Cruelty to Animals Act(1876), the first law especially highlighted at cause for animal experimentation. These laws must be implemented everywhere and care must be taken to avoid animal testing where possible.
4. In this advanced era where technology and innovation play the most important role, the existence of new alternative testing method can be a useful substitute for replacing the need for animals. These tests should be restricted to computer modelling and anti animals techniques.
5. Drugs that are used in animal tests are not necessarily hygienic and safe. The sleeping pills thalidomide, was tested on animals prior to its commercial release, which caused 10,000 babies to be born with severe deformities.
6. Animal tests are more expensive than alternative tests which results in waste of government research budget. The costs incurred on research are more than the benefit it yields. Thus, economically it is not a suggestive practice to be dealt with.
Experiments and tests should be least dependent on life of animals. The Three R's are the guiding principles which are relevant for more ethical use of animals in experiments, viz Replacement (preferred use of non-animal method), Reduction (methods to obtain comparable levels of guidelines from fewer animals), Refinement (methods to minimize pain and enhance animal welfare for animals used). The principle include computer modelling and non-invasive techniques. It has broader scope to improve animal welfare and scientific quality where the use of animals can be avoided.
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