Environment - Current Affairs Questions and Answers

Dear Readers, Welcome to daily Current Affairs quiz questions with answers on Environment. These objective type (MCQ) questions on Environment are useful for competitive exams like IBPS, Bank PO, SBI PO, RRB, RBI, LIC, Specialist Officer, Clerk, SSC, UPSC, Railway etc.

Covering various important national and international topics, the chosen questions help you improve your general knowledge (GK) and perform the best.

Learn and prepare with these daily current affairs quiz and practice test questions on Environment to crack current affairs section of any competitive exam.

1)   What is the underwater site built by octopuses off the east coast of Australia called?
- Published on 21 Sep 17

a. Second gloomy octopus site
b. Octlantis
c. Octopia
d. Both a and b
e. All the above
Answer  Explanation  Related Ques

ANSWER: Both a and b

Scientists have discovered Octlantis - an underwater site built entirely by octopuses, where they communicate with each other by posturing, chasing or colour changes.

Researchers found the site in the waters off the east coast of Australia, that is the home of up to 15 gloomy octopuses.

It is the second gloomy octopus settlement found in the area, and the discovery lends credence to the idea that octopuses are not necessarily loners.

The first gloomy octopus site was found in Jervis Bay off the east coast of Australia in 2009. The new site is located just a few hundred meters away from the first site, and has been dubbed Octlantis.

2)   Who among the following are part of the Air Pollution Institute of Research council?
- Published on 19 Sep 17

a. Bakul Parekh
b. Ashok Mahashur
c. Akshay Mehta
d. All of the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: All of the above

Alarmed by the growing negative impact of increasing air pollution on public health, eight of the country’s top doctors specialising in various disciplines have come together to form the Air Pollution Institute of Research (AIR) council.

The AIR council is made up of four specialists: paediatrician Dr. Bakul Parekh, chest physician Dr. Ashok Mahashur, interventional cardiologist Dr. Akshay Mehta and gynaecologist Dr. Rishma Pai.

The other four are Chennai-based paediatric pulmonologist De. Vijaya Sekaran, paediatrician Dr. Pramod Jog and interventional cardiologist Dr. Shirish Hiremath, both from Pune, and Dr. Hema Diwakar from Bangalore.

The council will endeavour to get to the root of the menace, collect data to link air pollutants to diseases, and eventually get the public and government to bring change gradually.

The doctors will be coming out with a white paper on the issue soon.

Pollutants present in the air we breathe include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) terms air pollution as a major environmental risk to health that increases the burden of ailments such as strokes, heart disease, lung cancer, chronic and acute respiratory diseases including asthma.

In a recent report, WHO had classified New Delhi as India’s most polluted city.

An analysis by the Central Pollution Control Board averred with the WHO report, and said Mumbai ranked with Delhi as cities with the worst air quality among the 10 cities surveyed.

The AIR council aims to restrict vehicle numbers, ensure free flow of traffic, promote usage of public transport, avoid having schools near industrial areas or dumping grounds, among other objectives.

3)   IUCN downlisted which species from its list of endangered animals on 14th Sept 2017?
- Published on 18 Sep 17

a. Pipistrelle
b. Gazelle
c. Mouse Deer
d. Snow Leopard
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Snow Leopard

The International Union of Concerned Scientists (IUCN) downlisted the Snow Leopard from its list of endangered species.

With the update to the widely cited ‘Red List’ on 14th Sept 2017 the list now includes 87,967 species of which 25,062 are threatened with extinction.

The cheerfully named Christmas Island Pipistrelle, a bat species that is found only in Australia’s Christmas Island is now officially extinct. ?

Only one individual of the species remained in 2009 and it was never found again.

One of the reasons for its disappearance was the introduction of an invasive species, the Yellow Crazy Ant into the bat’s habitat.

Snow Leopard: Know More

  • In India, snow leopards are found in the northern stretches in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, and is a Schedule I species, enjoying the same protections as the tiger.
  • The IUCN proposal was met with concern in India which hosts a population of about 400-700 with conservationists being divided about the implications of the move.
  • Removal of the species from the red list indicates that their populations are rebounding, which is a positive sign.
  • But some conservationists worry that downlisting the species from ‘endangered’ to only ‘vulnerable’ would signal that the species does not require the same amount of attention and resources as before.
  • Some also believe that the rationale for removing the species is based on flawed data.
  • Snow Leopards are very elusive species that are found at elevations of 3000-5000 metres which makes population estimations difficult.
  • There are also concerns that the threats to snow leopard populations persist. These include poaching, retaliatory killing by farmers, declining prey species, shrinking habitats, and climate change.
Project Snow Leopard: Know More
  • In 2009, India launched Project Snow Leopard.
  • Snow Leopard Project for Rs 5.15 Crores has been accepted by the MoEF, GOI commencing from 2010-11 onwards for a period of four years.
  • However, interest in the project faded pretty quickly.
  • The UNDP recently partnered with the environment ministry to launch the SECURE (Securing Livelihoods, Conservation, Sustainable Use and Restoration of High Range Himalayan Ecosystem) with an outlay of USD 12 million (nearly Rs 77 crore).
  • Four Indian states will receive funds under the program to conserve snow leopard habitats and for protection of the species.
  • India’s project snow leopard was a failure because it was never fully implemented on the ground.
  • The IUCN move is not likely to change the status of the snow leopard in India.
  • The government has also made a commitment towards snow leopard conservation at the recently held Bishkek forum, where 12 Snow Leopard range countries set the goal of securing 20 snow leopard landscapes by 2020.

4)   Which deer had become extinct in the Nalamala forests before human intervention?
- Published on 14 Sep 17

a. Swamp deer
b. Reindeer
c. Barking deer
d. Mouse Deer
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Mouse Deer

Mouse deer, which had become extinct in the Nalamala forests, has once again begun springing in the dense and thick bushes of the jungle after more than a decade.

Officials of the Amrabad Tiger Reserve on 12th Sept reintroduced eight mouse deer (2 males and 6 females), which were bred in captivity at the Nehru Zoological Park here for last seven years.

State forest department’s conservation breeding programme started at NZP in March 2010 with just six mouse deer (3 males and 3 females), which were brought from the Mangalore Zoo.

The numbers have swelled to 172, out of which 76 are female.

However, the animals were supposed to be released into the wild in 2013 itself.

In the last five years, many of them were dead in captivity and the lifespan of mouse deer is relatively short, with most living up to five or six years only.

The Nehru Zoological Park in association with Central Zoo Authority (CZA) and Laboratory for Conservation of Endangered Species (LaCONES) has been taken up for the conservation programme.

In order to reintroduce the mouse deer, which are bred in the NZP, a suitable location was identified in Mannanur forest range of ATR duly creating a protected enclosure, which is spread over 2.14 hectares of forest.

The enclosure has been completely protected by providing solar fence, watering facility through solar powered bore and CCTV cameras to monitor animals.

5)   Mass beaching of sperm whales in countries across the North sea was due to _______.
- Published on 06 Sep 17

a. Solar storms
b. Solar flares
c. UV rays
d. Both a and c
e. All the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Solar storms

The mass beachings of sperm whales in countries around the North Sea last year could have been due to solar storms.

Twenty-nine sperm whales washed up on German, Dutch, French and British shores between January and February 2016.

This was surprising scientists after only 82 previous beaching of sperm whales had been documented since the 1990s.

The solar storms which create the Northern Lights phenomenon could also have caused the world’s magnetic field to shift by up to 460 km (286 miles) which would interfere with the whales’ sense of orientation.

That could explain why the whales swam into the relatively shallow North Sea rather than follow their traditional routes in the Atlantic where they would find it easier to correct their direction.

If whales enter the North Sea they cannot navigate back as it’s an unnatural environment for them and very shallow. However, if they were in the Atlantic then they could.

6)   Which foundation has launched the nationwide #RallyForRivers campaign?
- Published on 06 Sep 17

a. Isha Foundation
b. Being Human Foundation
c. ISCKON Foundation
d. None of the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Isha Foundation

Isha Foundation has a decade of experience in matters related to environment and sustainability and hence has come up with a solution to stabilise and revitalise the rivers.

To ensure that the rivers are fed by moist soil throughout the year, the campaign plans to maintain a tree cover for at least one kilometre on either side of the entire river length and of about half a kilometre for tributaries.

Forest trees will be planted on government land and fruit trees on farmer’s land.

fruit trees will help to enhance the livelihood of farmers as well as improve nutritional intake among the people.

Rally for rivers: Know More

  • The rally was flagged off on September 2 in Coimbatore and will be driving across 13 states and 22 cities in India and culminate on October 2 in Delhi.
  • It will conduct over 21 events in major cities.
  • The simplest way to participate in the campaign is by giving a missed call to 80009 80009.
  • The missed calls will act as a vote to support the initiative.
  • The rally is informational and celebratory at the same time. Artists and celebrities will also take an active part in the campaign.
  • Film-stars, politicians and sportspersons have extended their support to the rally.
  • Celebrities like Salman Khan, Arbaaz Khan, Anupam Kher, Rishi Kapoor, Kajal Agarwal, Ramya Krishnan, Manisha Koirala, PV Sindhu, Mithali Raj, Uma Bharti and Sonia Gandhi, among others, are urging fans and followers to support the campaign.

7)   Which environment quiz will be launched at national level on Teacher’s Day by MoEF?
- Published on 04 Sep 17

a. Prakriti Shiskha
b. Prakriti Sankalp
c. Prakriti Sandarbh
d. Prakriti Khoj
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Prakriti Khoj

The Environment Ministry will launch an environment awareness initiative, under which an online environmental quiz competition named “Prakriti Khoj”.

It will be an ideal medium to reach out to young minds through a fun-filled interactive learning mode to trigger their sensitivity towards environment protection and conservation.

Prakriti Khoj: Know More

  • The objective of the quiz is to generate interest among school children about the science related to environment, interactions within it and the problems therein.
  • The quiz is planned in two phases. For the first phase, it is envisaged that maximum number of children of schools under the National Green Corps (NGC) programme of the Ministry should get an opportunity to participate in this environmental quiz.
  • Three age groups is planned to be covered in Phase-I which will be open only to Eco-clubs i.e. in the age-groups 8-12 years, 13-15 years and 16-18 years.
  • A separate web portal - www.ngc.nic.in containing information on the quiz has been developed by Ministry. Dates of the quiz will be updated on the Prakriti Khoj portal, as well as the Ministry’s website.

  • NGC

  • NGC was initiated by Ministry in 2001-02 for creating environmental awareness among children by formulating “Eco-clubs” in schools across the country.
  • There are around 1,00,000 Eco-clubs across the country, making it one of the largest conservation networks, wherein students are involved in various kind of activities such as cleanliness drives, carrying out waste segregation, composting using bio-degradable wastes, subsisting the concept of three R’s, viz., Reduce, Reuse and Recycle; Nukkad Nataks etc.

8)   Which snakes are covered under the nationwide “Living With Pythons” initiative?
- Published on 04 Sep 17

a. Rock Python
b. Burmese Python
c. Reticulated Python
d. All of the above
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: All of the above

Under an innovative initiative ‘Living with Pythons’, herpetologist and researcher Nirmal U. Kulkarni and his team are trying to address the need for a common protocol for python rescue and release.

The initiative will help address the issues relating to reptile-human conflict across the country during such rescue and release efforts.

As a first step to address this challenge, Mr. Kulkarni’s team has distributed 100 specially designed large python rescue snake bags to rescuers, forest department field staff and field researchers, across the country.

“Living with Pythons” is a nationwide initiative started to create awareness and instil appreciation about India’s three Python species.

These include the Indian Rock Python (Python molurus), Burmese Python (Python bivittatus) and Reticulated Python (Malayopython Reticulatus).

This is the first of its kind of initiative for important large snakes like the python and is the first of many initiatives that will follow as part of this project.

These bags are made of breathable cotton material and are designed for safe handling, rescue and release of large bodied snakes like pythons.

Easy to carry and wash, these bags play a major role in safety of both the snake handler as well as the snake in times of rescue as well as release of the snake.

9)   Which vegetation found on rocks and trees could be a low cost way to monitor urban pollution?
- Published on 28 Aug 17

a. Mosses
b. Lichen
c. Algae
d. Both b and c
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Mosses

Delicate mosses found on rocks and trees in cities around the world can be used to measure the impact of atmospheric change.

These could prove a low-cost way to monitor urban pollution, according to Japanese scientists.

The “bioindicator” responds to pollution or drought-stress by changing shape, density or disappearing, allowing scientists to calculate atmospheric alterations.

This method is very cost effective and important for getting information about atmospheric conditions.

Mosses are a common plant in all cities so we can use this method in many countries…. they have a big potential to be bioindicators with nearly 50 types of moss analysed for the study.

The humid cities where moss thrives could benefit most from using bryophytes–a collective term for mosses, hornworts and liverworts–as bioindicators, adding moss could be monitored in its natural environment or cultivated for analysis.

The Study

  • Researchers tested the effect of nitrogen pollution, air quality and drought-stress on moss found over a 3km square (1.9 mile) area in Hachioji City in northwestern Tokyo.
  • The study showed severe drought-stress tended to occur in areas with high levels of nitrogen pollution, which it said raised concerns over the impact on health and biodiversity.
  • However, the scientists could not effectively measure air purity which affects the number of moss types as pollution levels in the sample area were not high enough.
  • If the air pollution is severe, the purity is also evaluated by moss … the change of the moss is very diverse according to the environmental problem.
  • Bioindicators such as mosses - which generally absorb water and nutrients from their immediate environments - were often cheaper to use than other methods of environmental evaluation, and can also reflect changes to ecosystems, said the scientists.

10)   Tariff based competitive bidding process for Grid Connected Solar PV Power projects were issued under which section?
- Published on 28 Aug 17

a. Section 63 of the Electricity Act 2003
b. Section 64 of the Electricity Act 2003
c. Section 65 of the Electricity Act 2003
d. Section 66 of the Electricity Act 2003
Answer  Explanation  Related Ques

ANSWER: Section 63 of the Electricity Act 2003

Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) has issued the Guidelines for Tariff Based Competitive Bidding Process for Procurement of Power from Grid Connected Solar PV Power Projects.

The Government has notified these Guidelines on 3rd August, 2017.

These Guidelines have been issued under the provisions of Section 63 of the Electricity Act, 2003 for long term procurement of electricity by the ‘Procurers’ [the distribution licensees, or the Authorized Representative(s), or an Intermediary Procurer] from grid-connected Solar PV Power Projects (‘Projects’), having size of 5 MW and above, through competitive bidding.

Key Reform Initiatives as per these Guidelines are as follows:

i. Generation Compensation for off take constraints thereby reducing off take risks: The “Must-run” status for solar projects has been stressed upon.

Generation Compensation provided for following off-take constraints:

a) Back-down - Min. Compensation 50% of PPA Tariff
b)Grid unavailability - Compensation by way of Procurement of Excess Generation / Outright Compensation

ii. PPA: To ensure lower tariffs, Minimum PPA tenure has been kept at 25 years. Unilateral termination or amendment of PPA is not allowed.

iii. Project preparedness to expedite and facilitate setting up of projects: Issues related to land, connectivity, clearances etc. and the extension in case of delay, have been streamlined.

iv. Event of Default and the consequences thereof clearly defined to ensure optimal risk sharing between Developer and Procurer. This has been done by clearly defining the generator and procurer events of default, and describing the consequences thereof.

v.Termination Compensation to increase bankability of projects by securing the investment by the Generator and the lenders against any arbitrary termination of PPA. Quantum and modality for termination compensation in case of both generator default and procurer default has been clearly defined.

vi. Payment Security Mechanism: Risk of generator’s revenue getting blocked due to delayed payment / non- payment by the procurers has been addressed through provision of Payment Security Mechanism through instruments like Letter of Credit (LC), Payment Security Fund, State Guarantee, etc.

vii. Change in Law provision to provide clarity and certainty to generators, procurers, and investors/lenders - Change in Law provision, effective from the date of bid submission and covering any change in law/Tax rate which has a direct effect on the Project (and not just taxes made applicable for supply of power) has been provided.

viii. Early Commissioning & Part-Commissioning for expeditious completion of projects - Early commissioning and part commissioning have not only been allowed, but incentivised, by way of allowing the PPA for a minimum 25 years from the Scheduled Commissioning Date.

ix. Rationalisation of Penalties: The penalties have been rationalised, so as to reduce the overall cost to the Generator, while at the same time, ensuring compliance with the Commissioning Schedule/Scheme Guidelines

x. Re powering: Generators are free to re power their power plants. However, the procurer will be obliged to buy power only within the CUF range in PPA.

xi. Bid structure and process: Bids have been allowed in both Power (MW) and Energy (kWh) terms. Also, e-bidding has been emphasised to improve transparency.

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