Explain: Direct effects theory, Two-step flow theory, Agenda setting theory, Attitude change theory, Uses and gratifications theorya.)Direct effects theory
The direct effect theory of communications says that a message is directly received and completely accepted by the receiver. The "Direct effect theory" implies that mass media always has a direct, immediate and powerful effect on their audiences. The mass media in specific is perceived as a powerful influence on culture.
b.) Two-step flow theory
The two-step flow theory stresses on human agency which means mass media information is channeled to the "masses" through opinion leadership. The people with most access to media, higher understanding of media content, explain and intercept the content to the public. Diffusion of innovations is the product of the two step flow theory.
c.) Agenda setting theory
The agenda-setting theory refers to the fact that media has a very large effect on people’s perception and mind. Agenda-setting theory’s core concept says that mass media can transfer important items on their mass agendas to the publics mind and priority.
d.) Attitude change theory
The attitude-change theory suggests that attitudes being functions of cognitive, affective and conative components are a part of brain’s associative networks that consist of affective and cognitive nodes linked through associative pathways. These nodes contain affective, cognitive, and behavioral components that can be altered by the activation of a single node. Thus, by activating an affective or emotional node, attitude change may be possible. So the attitude change theory suggests that targeting these emotions can help the media or the sender to actually change the attitude of general public and create a brand new dimension in terms of consumer perception
e.) Uses and gratifications theory
Uses and gratifications theory refers to the idea that people use the media to get specific gratifications. This is in opposition to the direct effect theory which says that people have no control over how the media influences them and brings about a change in them. The main idea of the Uses and Gratifications is that people are not helpless victims of all powerful media, but use media to fulfill their various needs.