# Fluid Mechanics - Mechanical Engineering (MCQ) questions and answers for Q. 3920

Q.  Minor losses occur due to
- Published on 04 Aug 15

a. sudden enlargement in pipe
b. sudden contraction in pipe
c. bends in pipe
d. all of the above

ANSWER: all of the above

#### Discussion

• Pankaj   -Posted on 21 Oct 15
The causes of minor losses are,

- Losses due to inlet and outlet of the pipe: At the inlet and outlet of the pipe, fluid experiences flow pattern change and it leads to energy loss.

- Bends, elbows, tees and other fittings in the pipe: The bends, tees, elbows change the direction of flow in the pipe and slows down the velocity of flow.

- Sudden expansion and sudden contraction: At the sudden expansion and also at sudden contraction, the energy conversion happens between kinetic energy of the flow and pressure energy of the flow. This results into some loss of energy

- Valves opens and partially closed: This is similar condition as sudden contraction as flow experiences sudden reduction in velocity.

These components restrict the smooth flow of fluid and causes additional losses.

To minimize these minor losses, there should be minimum disturbances in the flow of fluid in pipe.
• Pankaj   -Posted on 30 Sep 15
The energy losses in pipe are classified into two categories.

1. Major losses
2. Minor losses

These losses occur in flow through pipe in order to overcome hydraulic resistance.

The losses which occur due to friction in pipe, then they are called as major losses. Major losses are calculated by Darcy-Weisbach formula.

hf = (4 f L V2) / (2 g D)

and the losses which occur due to disturbance in the flow pattern are called as minor losses. Theses losses occur due to sudden contraction or expansion in pipe, bends in pipe, valves and fittings etc.

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