Science & Technology - Current Affairs Questions and Answers for Q. 20027

Q.  Scientists have identified a common gene which encodes for protein kinases and enabled advancement of life billions of years ago. What are protein kinases?
- Published on 08 Mar 16

a. Gene found in complex organisms
b. Large group of enzymes
c. Enzymes that permit cells to be larger and transfer information from one part to another
d. Both b and c
e. None of the above

ANSWER: Both b and c
Scientists have identified a common ancestral gene enabling the evolution of advanced life more than 1 billion years ago, without which the planet would still have only primitive bacterial life form. Gene in question is found in complex organisms such as plants and animals and encodes for a big group of enzymes known as protein kinases. Protein kinases enable cells to become larger and transfer data from one to another part. Flora and fauna on earth exist because of eukaryotic cells that are far more complex than bacteria and contain organelles which perform diverse functions for life. Gene gives rise to protein kinases. On a cellular level, highly interactive signaling protein kinases play a role similar to brain neurons through transfer of information through a process referred to as protein phosphorylation. More than 400 human diseases such as cancer and diabetes are linked with cell signaling and disease occurs when there is misinformation or confusion in the cells. Nearly 25% of all pharma companies target protein kinases. From genome sequencing, it is known that 500 genes for different protein kinases had similar blueprints and led to the formation of a group of enzymes called as choline and ethanolamine kinases.The choline kinase enzyme is vital for the production of phosphatidylcholine, a major component of the membranes that wrap around eukaryotic cells and their organelles. It is missing from bacteria.

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