Which article deals Financial Emergency?

Q.  In case of declaration of financial emergency -
- Published on 27 Feb 17

a. All money bills of state compulsorily will be considered and passed only by the parliament
b. All the state governments will dissolve and management of the economy will be taken over the union government
c. It can be passed by a simple majority
d. All the state assemblies will be put under suspension and laws on the state list will be enacted by parliament

ANSWER: It can be passed by a simple majority
  • Article360empowersthepresidenttoproclaimaFinancialEmergencyifheissatisfiedthata situation has arisen due to which the financial stability or credit of India or any part of its territory is threatened.

  • The 38th Amendment Act of 1975 made the satisfaction of the president in declaring a Financial Emergency final and conclusive and not questionable in any court on any ground.

  • But, this provision was subsequently deleted by the 44th Amendment Act of 1978 implying that the satisfaction of the president is not beyond judicial review.

  • A proclamation declaring financial emergency must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament within two months from the date of its issue.

  • However, if the proclamation of Financial Emergency is issued at a time when the Lok Sabha has been dissolved or the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of two months without approving the proclamation, then the proclamation survives until 30 days from the first sitting of the Lok Sabha after its reconstitution, provided the Rajya Sabha has in the meantime approved it.

  • Once approved by both the Houses of Parliament, the Financial Emergency continues indefinitely till it is revoked.

  • This implies two things -

    (a) There is no maximum period prescribed for its operation; and

    (b) Repeated parliamentary approval is not required for its continuation.

  • A resolution approving the proclamation of financial emergency can be passed by either House of Parliament only by a simple majority, that is, a majority of the members of that house present and voting.

  • A proclamation of Financial Emergency may be revoked by the president at any time by a subsequent proclamation. Such a proclamation does not require the parliamentary approval.

  • Effects of Financial Emergency -

  • The executive authority of the Centre extends -

  • 1. to directing any state to observe such canons of financial propriety as are specified by it; and
    2. to directions as the President may deem necessary and adequate for the purpose.

  • Any such direction may include a provision requiring -

  • 1. the reduction of salaries and allowances of all or any class of persons serving in the state; and

    2. the reservation of all money bills or other financial bills for the consideration of the President after they are passed by the legislature of the state.

  • The President may issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of -

  • 1. all or any class of persons serving the Union; and

    2. the judges of the Supreme Court and the high court.

  • Thus, during the operation of a financial emergency, the Centre acquires full control over the states in financial matters.

  • H N Kunzru, a member of the Constituent Assembly, stated that the financial emergency provisions pose a serious threat to the financial autonomy of the states.

  • No Financial Emergency has been declared so far, though there was a financial crisis in 1991.

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