IAS Prelims GS Questions and Answers - Jan 17, 2016

1)   What is ‘Living Will’?

a. It’s a will in which a person voluntarily donates oneself to medical research during his entire remaining lifetime and even after death.
b. Wish made to choose the way of dying
c. Wish that one is not kept alive using ventilators
d. Will granting permission to donate one’s body after death for medical research and organ donation
Answer  Explanation 

ANSWER: Wish that one is not kept alive using ventilators

‘Living Will' is one in which a person when in sound mind and good health records his wish that he not be kept alive with the help of ventilators. Supreme Court agreed that prolonging a patient's life by putting him on ventilator or life support system against his will could amount to torture of the patient and be financially draining for his family. The bench sought the Centre's response within a fortnight on the plea for legalizing `Living Will', in which a person when in sound mind and good health records his wish that he should not be kept alive with the help of ventilators if doctors at any stage of his life opine that he cannot be kept alive without life support system. Legalizing ‘Living Will’ is somewhat similar to legalizing passive euthanasia. Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, provided that a team of doctors could decide withdrawal of life support system from terminally ill patients after they were declared brain dead. Right to life includes right to die with dignity. Law Commission in its 241st report had recommended, “A competent adult patient has the right to insist that there should be no invasive medical treatment by way of artificial life sustaining measures, treatment and such decision is binding on the doctors attending on such patient provided that the doctor is satisfied that the patient has taken an `informed decision' based on free exercise of his or her will. “ On patients in coma or in vegetative state, the commission had suggested that their relatives “shall have to get clearance from the high court” for withdrawing or withholding life sustaining treatment. Mumbai nurse Aruna Shanbaug's case is also associated with the issue of passive euthanasia.

2)   As per IMD, heat wave for a region is when

a. Temperatures are greater than 3.5° C above what’s usual for the region
b. Temperatures are greater than 4.5° C above what’s usual for the region
c. Temperatures are less than 3.5° C below what’s usual for the region
d. Temperatures are greater than 5° C above what’s usual for the region
Answer  Explanation  Related Ques

ANSWER: Temperatures are greater than 4.5° C above what’s usual for the region

Heat Wave - Temperatures are greater than 4.5° C above what’s usual for the region.
Cold Wave - Temperatures are less than 4.5° C below what’s usual for the region
Severe Heat wave – Maximum temperature greater than or equal to 47° C
Severe Cold Wave – Minimum temperature is 2° C or less.

If India’s monsoon rainfall were to dip below 10 per cent of the normal and span between 20 and 40 per cent of the country’s area, it would be called a “deficient” year instead of an “All India Drought Year” as the IMD’s older manuals would say. A more severe instance, where the deficit exceeds 40 per cent and would have been called an “All India Severe Drought Year,” will now be a “Large Deficient Year”.

3)   What technique whales use for orientation and travelling?

a. Sight and pressure changes
b. Smell and sight
c. Echolocation
d. Touch and water flow
Answer  Explanation  Related Ques

ANSWER: Echolocation

Echolocation is the use of sound waves and echoes to determine where objects are in space. Bats use echolocation to navigate and find food in the dark. Sensitivity to low frequency sound is the key for whales, as they use echolocation for orientation. Episodes of mass stranding of whales across the world show pilot whales to be the most commonly involved in the phenomenon. More than one hypothesis on stranding of whales, including short-finned pilot whales that died in large numbers on the Thoothukudi coast in Tamil Nadu, point to hearing sensitivity of these toothed mammals implicated in such events. It is possible, for instance, that a combination of environmental factors such as high levels of man-made noise from shipping activity, the resulting hearing loss and new stresses might be affecting their behavior. Injury caused to one pilot whale could have implications for an entire pod, as these squid-eating creatures generally found in deeper tropical and sub-tropical waters across the world act in a gregarious manner and could fatally follow a sick individual to the shore as a group. This protected species is also affected by intensive fishery methods such as trawling, gillnetting and use of long lines, leading to regulations on their use in North America.

4)   Government of India recently has struck a partnership with whom for giving a boost to immunization?

a. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
b. Ranbaxy
c. Gavi
d. GlaxoSmithKline
Answer  Explanation  Related Ques


India’s immunisation programme, in dire need of expanding the number of vaccines on the list, will receive a boost with Gavi the Vaccine Alliance pledging to spend up to $ 500 million between 2016 and 2021. In addition to introducing new vaccines into the schedule, the idea is also to reach the unreached and increase access to vaccines for millions of children in India. Under this new partnership strategy, Gavi will allocate the $ 500 million in two tranches — $ 100 million, to support the country’s current immunisation programme and enhance reach, and $ 400 million, for country-wide introduction of new vaccines for diarrhoea and pneumonia, cervical cancer, and Rubella with measles. Currently Gavi procures 60 per cent of its vaccines from Indian manufacturers. It is hoped that through the partnership, Gavi and the government of India will work more closely together to help create a more sustainable global and domestic vaccine manufacturing base, keeping in line with the Make in India initiative.

5)   What is the GAVI Alliance?

a. Alliance for monetary aid to least developed nations
b. Alliance for peace in the Latin American Countries
c. Global alliance against drug smuggling
d. Alliance for immunization program
Answer  Explanation  Related Ques

ANSWER: Alliance for immunization program

Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance is a public-private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunisation in poor countries. Gavi brings together developing country and donor governments, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, the vaccine industry in both industrialised and developing countries, research and technical agencies, civil society, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other private philanthropists.

6)   Recently the government launched ‘Startup India’ initiative. Which of the following statement/s is/are true regarding it?

1) Innovation hub under Atal Innovation Mission will be created
2) Startup will be started in one day.
3) Profits earned by start-ups will be exempt from payment of income tax during the first two years of business.
4) Easy exit option will be provided.

a. 2, 3, 4
b. 1, 2, 3
c. 1, 2, 4
d. All of the above
Answer  Explanation  Related Ques

ANSWER: 1, 2, 4

The Start Up India policy would attempt to address two key concerns the government wants to fix in India’s start-up ecosystem. Over 65 per cent of successful start-ups re-locate out of India owing to the difficulty of doing business, usually to Singapore. Secondly, 90 per cent of start-up funding presently comes from foreign VC and PE funds.

Major points in action plan of the Startup India initiative are –

  • Profits earned by start-ups will be exempt from payment of income tax during the first three years of business. To boost financing, a 20% tax on capital gains made on investments by entrepreneurs after selling own assets as well as government-recognized venture capitalists will also be exempt.

  • Credit guarantee fund for start-ups, tax incentives.

  • Govt. to ensure 90-day window for start-ups to close businesses.

  • India, which has the third-largest number of start-ups globally, will also support the ventures by removing the criteria of experience and turnover for bagging government procurement contracts.

  • The Human Resource Development Ministry and the Department of Science and Technology have agreed to partner in an initiative to set up over 75 such startup support hubs in the National Institutes of Technology (NITs), the Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs), the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs) and NIPERs or National Institutes of Pharmaceutical Education and Research.

  • 80% reduction in patent registration fee

  • No inspection for 3 years of start-up businesses in respect of labour, environment law compliance post self-certification

  • Faster patent registration and protection for Intellectual Property rights. We are also introducing self-certification compliance by startups.

  • Launch of Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) with Self-Employment and Talent Utilisation (SETU) Program

  • Harnessing Private Sector Expertise for Incubator Setup

  • Building Innovation Centres at National Institutes

  • Setting up of 7 New Research Parks Modeled on the Research Park Setup at IIT Madras

  • Promoting Startups in the Biotechnology Sector

  • Launching Innovation Focused Programs for Students