In statement-conclusion, a paragraph or a statement is given to us and based on that we must derive certain conclusions.
Now what is a conclusion? So, a conclusion is a judgement or a decision which is derived after sufficient reasoning. In our context, conclusions are logical facts that are derived or inferred from the passage.
Importance of topic
- This is one of the most important topic in logical reasoning.
- Questions from this topic are asked in almost all the examinations like CAT, NMAT, SNAP, MAT, CMAT, CET etc.
Steps to Solve
Tips and Tricks
- Read the passage or given statements thoroughly.
- Analyze each statement individually.
- Draw a logical conclusion based on the given statement.
To arrive to a solution within few seconds you need to keep in mind these listed points.
1. Do Not Assume
Only Make those assumptions that can be drawn or inferred from the given passage or statements. Do not assume anything which is not related to the passage.
Teacher scolded Ram in front of all the students.
The teacher disliked Ram
Here, given statement is the teacher scolded Ram but no specific reason is mentioned. It can be because Ram was late to attend the class or Ram did not complete his homework. So just by assuming that the teacher disliked Ram and so she scolded him is totally wrong. So, avoid such conclusions.
2. Advice or Result
If a given conclusion is in advice form or a certain result can be deduced out of it then such a conclusion will always be true. But of course, the conclusions should be related to the given statement.
With the increase in consumption of petroleum products, it is feared that petrol will be a rare commodity in near future.
Petroleum Products should be used efficiently.
Here the given conclusion is in advice form. So such a conclusion is always true.
3. Avoid Pre-Assumptions
If a given conclusion contains a "Pre-Assumption" then such a conclusion is always wrong.
Many people have been admitted in the hospital. It is assumed that junk food is poisonous.
Junk food is always poisonous.
Now as per the given conclusion, it is very clear that we are trying to make a "Pre-Assumption" based on the unhealthy effects of junk food. So, such "Pre-Assumed" conclusions are always wrong.
4. Do not go by Morals
For certain questions, when you go by the options for finding out an appropriate conclusion, sometimes it may happen that the answer option may not be morally correct, still that will be the correct answer. So, if an option is related to the statement and if you find it to be it logically correct then that option should be selected even if it is morally incorrect.
Many Medicines contain Fish oil.
1. All the vegetarians are also Pescetarians.
2. Some vegetarians consume such medicines to cure their diseases.
Correct option is 2nd
one. So even if the option is not morally correct as vegetarians should not consume fish but to cure certain diseases it is necessary to consume such medicines. So, some conclusions like the one given above are correct even if they are morally incorrect but are logically correct and are related to the given statement.
In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered 1 and 2. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them is logically correct and related to the statement.
(A) If only conclusion 1 follows
(B) If only conclusion 2 follows
(C) If either 1 or 2 follows
(D) If neither 1 nor 2 follows and
(E) If both 1 and 2 follow.
An advertisement of a company XYZ- "If you are a software engineer we want to hire you".
1. Company hires no person with other qualification.
2. Company XYZ is in need of software engineers.
Correct Option: (B)
Option no 1 is not appropriate as nothing is mentioned in the statement about Company XYZ not hiring people from any other profession.
India is a democratic country
1. No other country in the world is democratic.
2. There are many other countries in the world that are democratic.
Correct Option: (D)
Neither 1 nor 2 follows. This is because in the statement, nothing is mentioned about other countries. The statement only talks about India.
Shyam is one of the probable students for securing 1st
rank in the class.
1. Shyam will secure 1st
2. Shyam will not secure 1st
Correct Option: (C)
Either 1 or 2 follows. As the statement says, only 2 possible outcomes are possible. One Shyam will be 1st in his class or he won’t be. But both the things cannot happen simultaneously. Hence option C is appropriate.
An advertisement- "50% off on all Electronic Goods up till 31st
1. After 31st
January, no discount will be provided.
2. No sale of electronic goods after 31st
Correct Option: (A)
Option 2 is not valid as the statement clearly says that the sale is up till 31st Jan. Nothing like the sale of electronic goods will stop after 31st Jan is mentioned. So only option no 1 follows.
Due to recession, Company X has fired its 200 employees.
1. Company X is well known for firing people.
2. All other competitors of Company X are also affected because of recession.
Correct Option: (D)
Neither 1 nor 2 follows. Company X has fired its employees because of current recession. Nothing is mentioned about the history of the company X. So, option 1 is false.
The competitors may or may not be affected because of recession. We are not aware of that fact. So, option no 2 is also false.