Banking Awareness, Banking Terminologies for IBPS, RBI, SBI Exams
Indian Banking Industry
Historical background: - Swadeshi movement, which began in 1906, encouraged the formation of a number of commercial banks. Banking crisis during 1913-1917 and failure of 58 banks in various states during the decade ended 1949 underlined the need for regulating and controlling commercial banks.
The banking companies act was passed in February1949, which was subsequently amended to read as banking regulation act, 1949. This act provided the legal framework for regulation of the banking system by RBI. The largest bank imperial bank of India – was taken over by the RBI in 1955 and rechristened as State Bank of India, followed by inclusion of its Associate Banks in 1959. With a view to bring commercial banks into the mainstream of economic development, the Government issued an ordinance on 19 July 1969. The first phase of nationalization took place in 1969 where 14 banks were nationalized.
Meaning of bank: - bank is a lawful organization, which accepts deposits that can be withdrawn on demand. It also lends money to individuals and business houses that need it.
Role of banking: - it acts as an intermediary between people having surplus money and those requiring money for various business activities. It facilitates business transactions through receipts and payments by cheques instead of currency. It provides loans and advances to businessmen for short term and long term purposes. It also facilitates both import and expoet transactions. It helps in national development by providing credit to farmers small scale industries and self employed people as well as to large business houses which lead to balanced economic development in the country. It helps in raising the standard of living of people in general by providing loans for purchase of consumer durable goods, houses, automobiles etc.
Public sector banks: - These are banks where majority stake is held by the government of India or Reserve bank of India. Example of public sector banks is State Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Bank of baroda and Dena bank, etc. there are at present 27 Public sector banks in India including Bhartiya Mahila Bank.
Private sector banks:- In case of private sector banks majority of share capital of the bank is held by private individuals. These Banks are registered as companies with limited liability. For example: The ICICI Bank, Axis Bank, federal Bank etc. the minimum capital for the private sector banks must be 33 crore.
Foreign Banks: - These banks are registered and have their headquarters in a foreign country but operate their branches in our country. Some of the foreign banks operating in our country Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), Citibank, American express Bank, Standard & Chartered Bank, Gridlay’s Bank, etc. The number of foreign Banks operating in our country has increased since the financial sector reforms of 1991. According to a report by RBI there are 47 foreign Banks branches in India as on March 31, 2013.
Banking Ombudsman Scheme:-
- The banking ombudsman scheme makes available an expeditious and inexpensive forum to bank customers for resolution of complaints related to certain services rendered by banks. The Banking Ombudsman Scheme was introduced under section 35A of the Banking Regulation Act 1949 with effect from 1995. All banks come under it.
- The Banking ombudsman is a senior official appointed by RBI to receive and solve complaints against deficiency in certain banking services.
- One can file a complaint before the banking ombudsman if the reply to the representation made by the customer to his bank is not received within one month from the date on which bank received the complaint. The banking ombudsman doesn’t charge any fee for this. The highest appellate authority is Deputy governor of RBI.
Reserve bank of India: - The Reserve Bank of India was established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
The central office of the Reserve Bank was initially established in Kolkata but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. The central office is where the governor sits and where policies are formulated. Though originally privately owned, since nationalization in 1949, the Reserve Bank is fully owned by the government of India.
Organization and management: - The Reserve Bank of India `is managed by the central board of Directors. Presently, this board consists of 20members. Besides Governor and four deputy governors, four Directors are nominated, each by the four local boards. Besides, 10 Directors and 1 government officer are nominated by the government of India. These Boards have been established, in Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and New Delhi respectively.
According to the Reserve Bank of India Act, the term of nominated members is for 4 years. Governor and Deputy Governors are appointed by the Government for a period of 5 years. Central board of Directors must hold at least 6 meetings in a year and at least 1 meeting in 3 months. Bank’s Head office is located in Mumbai. The Bank has 22 regional offices, most of which are in a state capitals.
Monetary Policy: - RBI formulates implements and monitors the monetary policy. Monetary policy refers to the use of instruments under the control of the central bank to regulate the availability, cost and use of money and credit. The goal: achieving specific economic objectives, such as low and stable inflation and promoting growth.
Objective: maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to productive sectors.
Ensuring adequate flow of credit to the productive sectors of the economy to support economic growth.
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR):- CRR is the amounts of funds that the banks have to keep with RBI. The share of net demand and time liabilities that banks must maintain as cash balance with the Reserve Bank. If RBI increases CRR, the available amount with the banks comes down. RBI is utilizing this procedure (increase of CRR), to drain out the excessive money from the banks.
Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR):- SLR is a term used in the regulations of banking in India. It is the amount which a bank has to maintain in the form of cash, gold or approved securities balance in current amount with other commercial bank. Main use of SLR is used to control Inflation and propel growth. Through SLR rate the money supply in the system can be controlled effectively. The quantum is specified as some percentage of the total demand and time liabilities of a bank. This percentage is fixed by the Reserve Bank of India. Presently the SLR is 23%. The 23% is the minimum SLR (the statutory requirements to park their money in government bonds) limit the RBI can fix at present.
Refinance Facilities: - Sector-specific refinance facilities (e.g., against lending to export sector) provided to banks.
Liquidity adjustments facility (LAF):- It consist of daily infusion or absorption of liquidity on a repurchase basis, through repo (liquidity injection) and reserve repo (liquidity absorption) auction operations, using governments securities as collateral.
Open Market Operations (OMO):- outright sales/purchases of government securities, in addition to LAF, as a tool to determine the level of liquidity over the medium term.
Market Stabilization scheme (MSS):- This Instrument for monetary management was introduced in 2004. Liquidity of a more enduring nature arising from large capital flows is absorbed through sale of short –dated government securities and treasury bills.
Repo rate: - repo rate is the rate at which RBI subscribe govt securities to the other scheduled commercial bank OR this is the interest at which RBI lends money to banks against govt securities and for short term period, upto 90 days.
Reverse Repo Rate:- a reverse repo is simply the same repurchase agreement as described from the buyer’s viewpoint and not the seller’s. We can say that reverse repo rate is the rate at which RBI pays to commercial banks when they park their excess liquidity with RBI.
Bank rate: - It is the rate at which the Reserve Bank of India is ready to buy or rediscount bills of exchange or other commercial papers. It also signals the medium-term stance of monetary policy. Lower bank rates can help to expand the economy, In case when unemployment is high, by reducing the cost of funds for borrowers. Contrary, higher bank rates help to prevail in the economy, when Inflation is higher than desired.
Marginal standing facility (MSF):- This is a rate at which banks borrow funds overnight from the Reserve Bank of India against approved government security bonds. This MSF came into force in May 2011.Under marginal standing facility (MSF) banks avail funds from the RBI on overnight basis against their excess Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR) holdings. Eligibility: all scheduled commercial banks having current account and SGL account with Reserve bank, Mumbai will be eligible to participate in the MSF scheme.
Timing… The facility will be available on all working days in Mumbai, excluding Saturdays between 3:30p.m and 4:30p.m.
Term Repo:- On October 08,2013 RBI decided to conduct auctions for Term Repos of 7-day and 14-day tenor, for a notified amount, through variable rate auction mechanism. The 14 day term repo will be conducted every reporting Friday and the 7 that term repo would be conducted on every non reporting Friday. The rate of auction has to be higher than the repo rate.
Money Market Instruments:-
Treasury bills: - These are the lowest risk category instruments for the short term. RBI issues treasury bills (T-Bills) at a prefixed day and for a fixed amount. There are 3 types of treasury bills. -91-day T-Bill: maturity is in 91 days, it is auctioned on every Friday of every week and the notified amount for auction is Rs.100 crore. -182-day T-Bill: maturity is in 182 days, it is auctioned on every alternative Wednesday, which is not a reporting week and the notified amount for auction is Rs.500 crore. -364- T-Bill: maturity is 64 days, it is auctioned on every alternative Wednesday which is reporting week and the notified amount for the auction is Rs.500 crores.
Certificates of deposits (CD):- after the treasury bills the next lowest risk category investment option is Certificate of Deposit (CD) issued by banks and financial institution (FI). Allowed in1989, D’s were one of RBI’s measures to deregulate the cost of funds for banks and FLs. A certificate of deposits is a negotiable promissory note, secure and short term, of up to a year, in nature.
A CD is issued at a discount to the face value, the discount rate being negotiated between the issuer and the investor. Although RBI allows CDs up to 1 year maturity, the maturity most quoted in the market is for 90 days.
Commercial Papers: - These are negotiable short term unsecured promissory notes with fixed maturities, is issued by well-rated organizations. These are generally sold on discount basis. Organizations can issue CPs either directly or through banks or merchant banks [called as dealers]. These instruments are normally issued in the multiples of five crores for 30/45/60/90/120/180/270/364 days.
Call Money:- call or notice money is an amount borrowed or lent on demand for a very short period. If the period is greater than one day and up to 14 days it is called notice money, otherwise the amount is known as call money. No collateral security is needed to cover these transactions.
Commercial Bills:- bills of exchange are negotiable instruments drawn by the seller or drawer of the goods on the buyer or drawee of the good for the value of the goods delivered. These bills are called trade bills. These trade bills are commercial bills when they are accepted by commercial banks.
Dated government securities:- these are securities issued by government of India and state govts. The date of maturity is specified in these securities therefore thay are known as dated govt. securities. The government borrows funds through the issue of long term dated securities, the lowest risk category in the economy.
Money Market concepts……
Issued Capital: - it is that part of a company’s capital that has been subscribed to bu shareholders.
Paid up Capital:- it is that part of issued capital of a company, paid up by the shareholders (promoters). It is that part, invested by promoters. Therefore, an issued capital may or may not be a paid up capital.
Authorized Capital:- it is the amount of share capital fixed in the memorandum of an association and the articles of association of a company as required by the company’s act. They are also known as nominal capital.
Net Asset Value (NAV):- the investment efficiency of the mutual fund can be measured in terms of the NAV and net sales. NAV is the indicator of the investment performance and it indicated the amount each unit holder will; get per unit on redemption or winding uo of mutual fund.
Bonds:- a bond is simply a loan, but in the form of a security, although terminology used is rather different. The issuer is equivalent to the borrower, the bond holder to the lender and the coupon to the interest. Bond enables the issuer to finance long term investments with external funds.
Debentures:- a debenture is a long term debt instrument used by government and large companies to obtain funds. It is similar to a bond except the securitization conditions are different. A debenture is usually unsecured in the sense that there are no pledges on specific assets.
Mutual Funds:- a mutual fund is a professionally managed type of collective investment scheme that pools money from many investors to buy stocks, bonds, short term money market instruments and other securities.
- RE: Banking Awareness, Banking Terminologies for IBPS, RBI, SBI Exams -kavitha (04/07/15)
- web site provides more and more information on banking.
- RE: Banking Awareness, Banking Terminologies for IBPS, RBI, SBI Exams -swamy (04/07/15)
- An excellent website for the aspirant of banking exams. please provide more mcq on banking and rbi
- RE: Banking Awareness, Banking Terminologies for IBPS, RBI, SBI Exams -leena (03/14/15)
- RE: Banking Awareness, Banking Terminologies for IBPS, RBI, SBI Exams -leena (03/14/15)
- Banking Awareness, Banking Terminologies for IBPS, RBI, SBI Exams -Ijya Tiwari (04/24/14)
Fiscal Deficit: A deficit in the government budget of a country and represents the excess of expenditure over income. So this is the amount of borrowed funds require by the government to meet its expenditure completely.
Current Account Deficit:- Cad is the difference of export and imports of a country in one financial year.
General Anti Avoidance Rules (GAAR):- GAAR was for the first time proposed in the budget of 2012-13 by finance minister Pranab Mukherjee. They have been deferred and will now be implemented from April 2016. GAAR are rules which limit avoidance of taxes. GAAR enables the authorities to deny the tax benefits of transactions or arrangements which do not have any commercial substance or consideration other than achieving the tax benefit. GAAR is intended to target tax evaders, especially Indian companies and investors trying to route investments through Mauritius or other tax havens in order to avoid taxes.
Money Laundering:- money laundering is the practice in a specific financial transaction to conceal the identity, source and destination of money and is the main operation of underground economy. India has prevention of money laundering act 2002 which was at latest amended in 2009.
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) :- it refers to direct investment in the productive capacities of a country by someone from outside the country. such an investment can be in the form of setting up a new plant or through purchase of shares of a company, where the shareholding gives the foreign entity control over the business of the company.
Participatory notes or P-Notes:- these are financial instruments used by the investors or hedge funds that are not registered with the SEBI to invest in Indian securities.
Foreign Institutional Investors (FII):- they invest in the Indian capital market. These flows are large in magnitude and have a great impact on capital market and exchange rate. FIIs are also permitted to use their investment in corporate bonds and government securities as collateral to meet their margin requirements.
FDI Limits in various sectors:-
- Defence production:- 26%
- Drugs and pharmaceuticals:- 100%
- Banking (private) sector:- 74%
- Insurance:- 26%
- Single brand retail:- 100%
- Multi brand retail:- 51%
- Telecom:- 100%
- Civil aviation:- 49%
- Credit information companies:- 74%
- Courier services:- 100%
Quantitative easing and its tapering:- following the 2008 crisis, the US Fed resort to bond buying as a means of boosting the economy. When the Fed buys up bonds, it amounts to releasing more money into the markets that leads to reducing interest rates. This is called “quantitative easing” measure or QE. This made borrowing in the US cheaper and hence incentivized borrowers to invest. In June 2013, the Fed chief signaled that QE process might be tapered off which would imply that interest rates in the US will climb again. That could lead to investors investing in US and pulling out their investment from emerging markets, including India.
Financial Inclusion:- financial inclusion is the delivery of banking services at5 affordable cost to the vast section of disadvantaged and low income group.
Regional rural banks (RRBs):- these were formed on the recommendations of the Narsimhan working group and these banks are located in rural areas to provide banking and credit facilities to the rural population of India. The share of capital in these banks is:- 50% central government+ 35% state government + 15% sponsor bank. Any nationalized bank is the sponsor bank of a RRB. The first RRB was formed on 2 October 1975- Prathama Bank in U.P.
Self Help Groups (SHGs):- SHG is a small voluntary organization of poor people, preferably from the same socio-economic background. They come together for the purpose of solving their common problems through self help and mutual help. The SHG promotes small savings among its members. the savings are kept in a bank with the common name of SHG. Usually there are maximum 20 members in a SHG.
Micro credit/micro finance:- micro credit is the extension of very small loans to the unemployed, to poor entrepreneurs and to others living in poverty who are not considered bankable. It was innovated by Mohammed Yunus in 1970s and UN declared 2005 as International tear of Micro credit. Micro Finance is a wider concept and it includes financial literacy also.
Other banking facts:-
CORE Banking Solution (CBS):- CORE stands for:- centralized Real Time Online Exchange. CBS is the heart of programming of all banks. In this, all branches of a bank are connected through a centralized server. This enables the customers to operate their account or any other banking facility from any branch of the bank across the bank’s operation area.
Non Performing Assets (NPA):- NPA means an asset or account of borrower, which has been classified by a bank or financial institution as sub standard, doubtful or loss asset in accordance with the guidelines of RBI. Simply, NPA is a loan not recovered. If a loan has been overdue for more than 90 days from its due date of payment, it will be considered as NPA of the bank.
BASEL Committee:- the BASEL committee on banking supervision provides a forum for a regular co operation on banking supervisory matters. Its objective is to enhance understanding of key supervisory issues and improve the quality of banking supervision worldwide.The committee’s secretariat is located at Bank for International Settlement (BIS) in Basel, Switzerland. The first BASEL norms were published in 1988 as a first attempt to make the standards for Capital adequacy ratio. BASEl-2 came in 2006. And BASEL-3 came in 2013, January and have to implemented in India by 2019.
Capital Adequacy Ratio:- CAR also known as capital to risk weighted assets ratio, is a ratio of a bank’s capital to its risk. National regulators track to a banks’ CAR to ensure that it can absorb a reasonable amount of loss and complies with statutory capital requirements.
Credit Rating Agencies of India:- CRISIL, CIBIL (india’s first credit information bearue), ICRA, CARe etc.
CAMELs rating system:- C- capital adequacy, A- asset quality, M-management quality, E- earnings, L- liquidity, S- Senstivity to market risks. Bank supervisory authorities assign each bank a score on a scale of one (best) to five (worst) for each of the above six factors. The system helps the supervisory authority identify banks that are in need of attention.
- Banking Awareness, Banking Terminologies for IBPS, RBI, SBI -Ijya Tiwari (04/24/14)
There are just three types of negotiable instruments:- bills of exchange, promissory notes and cheques.
Cheques …. Cheque is a very common form of negotiable instrument. If you have a savings banks account or current account in a bank, you can issue a cheque in your own name or in favour of others, thereby directing the bank to pay the specified amount to person named in the cheque.
The negotiable instrument Act, 1881 defines a cheque as a bill of exchange drawn on a specified Banker and not expressed to be payable otherwise than on demand. Therefore, a cheque may be regarded as a bill of exchange; the only difference is that the bank always is the drawee in case of a cheque.
Types of cheque
Ante Dated Cheque: A cheque having a date prior to the actual date of signature in the cheque or opening of account is called an Ante Dated cheque.
Stale cheque: - If the validity of the cheque is already expired it is called stale cheque which cannot be paid. The normal maximum validity of cheque is 3 months earlier it was 6 months.
Post Dated cheque:- The cheque having a date subsequent to the date on which it is drawn . E.g. a cheque drawn on 10th January, 2013 bears the date of 12th January, 2013.
Crossing of cheque: - Since open cheque is subject to risk of theft, it is dangerous to issue such cheque but the risk can be avoided by issuing other types of cheque called “Crossed cheque”. And Crossing of cheque means to draw two parallel lines across the face of cheque. A crossed cheque cannot be paid in cash across the counter and it must be paid through a bank either by transfer, collection, clearing.
Dishonour of cheque: When the payment is not made by the paying banker with a return memo giving reasons for the non-payment.
Promissory Note:- suppose you take a loan of Rupees of five hundred from your friend Ramesh. You can make a document stating that you will pay to Ramesh or the bearer on demand or you van mention in the document that you will like to pay the amount after three months. This document now signed and duly stamped is given to Ramesh and becomes a negotiable instrument. Now Ramesh can personally present the document in front of you to make payment or he can endorse it in somebody’s else’s name who in turn can endorse it further till final payment is made by you to whosoever presents it before you. Such a document is called promissory note.
Bill of Exchange:- it is an instrument in writing containing an unconditional order, signed by the maker, directing a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to or to the order of acertain person or to the bearer of the instrument.
Payment and Settlement system….
National electronic funds Transfer (NEFT):- is a nationwide payment system facilitating one to one funds transfer. Under this scheme, individuals, firm or corporate can electronically transfer funds from any bank branch to any individual, firm or corporate having an account with any other bank branch in the country participating in the Scheme.
For being part of the NEFT funds transfer network, a bank branch has to be NEFT – enabled. Individuals, firms or corporate maintaining account with a bank branch can transfer funds using NEFT. However, such cash remittances will be restricted to a maximum of an Rs.50000/- per transaction. NEFT facilitates originators or remitters to initiate funds transfer transaction even without having a bank account.
Real Time gross Settlement account (RTGS) System:- This is define as the continuous (real- time) settlement of funds transfer individually on an order by order basis (without netting) “real Time” means the processing of instruction at the time they are received rather than at some later time “gross settlement” means the settlement of funds transfer instructions occurs individually (on an instruction by instruction basis). Considering that the funds settlement takes place in the books of the Reserve Bank of India, the payments are final and irrevocable. RBI has operational zed a new ISO20022 complaint RTGS system October 19-2-2013.
The RTGS system is primarily meant for large value transaction. The minimum amount to be remitted through RTGS is Rs 2 lakh. The RTGS service window for customer’s transaction is available from 9:00 hours to 16:30hrs on week days and from 9:00 hrs to 13:30 hrs on Saturdays for settlement at the RBI end. However, the timings that the banks follow may vary depending on the customers timing of the bank branches. With a view to rationalize the service charges levied by bank for offering funds transfer through RTGS system, a broad framework has been mandated.
Deflation:- deflation is the general decline in the prices of goods or assets. In deflation, there is a tremendous lack of liquidity in the market and the purchasing power of consumers is reduced.
INFLATION:- Inflation is defined as a sustained increase in the general level of prices for goods and services. It is measured as an annual percentage increase. As inflation rises, every rupee you own buys a smaller percentage of a good or service. Consequently, Inflation effects as a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money- a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy.
Types of Accounts………….
DeMat Account: - A DeMat account is one that allows you to buy, sell as well as transact without the need of any paperwork. DeMat account are very safe, convenient and secure. DeMat refers to a Dematerialized account.
Fixed deposit account or time deposit account:- cash is deposited in this account for a fixed period . This is not transferable. If the depositor stands in need of the amount before the expiry of the fixed period, he can withdraw the same after paying the penalty to the bank. This type of deposit attracts high rates of interest. Longer the period of deposit higher is the rate of interest. It is also called time liability of the bank.
Current Account or Demand deposit Account:- A depositor can deposit his funds any number of times he likes and can also withdraw the same any number of times he wishes. No interest is paid by the bank on this account. The Bank demands some charges from the depositors if the amount lying in the account falls below the minimum limit.
Saving Account:- In this account, interest is given now on per day basis between 10th and 30th of every month.
Recurring Deposit Account:- Under this account, a specified amount is deposited every month for a specific period, such as 12,24,36or 60 months it can be even for 120 months. This amount cannot be withdrawn before the expiry of the given period except under exceptional circumstances. Interest on the amount deposited is also credited to the account of the depositor. Like time deposit account, interest paid on this account is higher than other accounts.
NOSTRO Account: This account is maintained by an Indian Bank in the foreign countries. VOSTRO Account: - This account is maintained by a foreign bank in iIndia with their corresponding bank.