Bronze Age in India was highly developed and urbanized.

Bronze Age in India was highly developed and urbanized.

Question - Bronze Age in India was highly developed and urbanized. Discuss.

The urban culture of the Bronze Age found in Harappa was a marvelous discovery that pushed back the history of India. The Harappan people produced a host of crops and were the earliest to produce cotton. Craft specialization and trade with distant parts of Asia is also indicative of an urban culture. Civilization is characterized by the density of population, association between economic and social processes, trade and commerce etc.

From excavations it is clear that Harappan cities were planned in such a way that they could serve the social and economic requirements of their inhabitants. The mature phase represents the urbanization of Harappan civilization. Urban Revolution as many call it, is associated with socio-cultural unity, economic organization and a central authority. The architecture of the Harappan city, the drainage system, lay out of the streets, citadels etc point towards a strong authority. Another feature of Harappan urbanization was the elaborate craft specialization and the contacts with other parts of Asia. This is known as the first urbanization in India.

Town Planning: Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan and Dholavira were probably the cardinal areas of the Indus Civilization. The rectangular grid pattern with roads cutting at right angles is commonly followed in all the cities of Indus. The elaborate town planning is evident of the Harappan urbanization. The citadel or acropolis found at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro was possibly occupied by members of the ruling class, below which was a lower town occupied by common people. The monuments of indicated the ability of the ruling class to pull together labor and collect taxes. The advanced and well laid out drainage system is very impressive. Every house in the city had its own courtyard and bathroom. Water from houses flowed to the streets drains which were covered with bricks or stone slabs.

Trade: The existence of trade in the Indus land is evident by the granaries found at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, and Lothal. This is also supported by the finds of numerous seals, a uniform script, and presence of weights and measures covering. The Harappans carried trade relations in stone, metal, shell, etc. within and outside their area.

Excavations reveal that the culture flourished until 1900 BCE. Eventually in the later stages, its urban phase indicated by precise town planning, the art of writing, standardized weights and measures, use of bronze tools, and red-ware pottery, virtually died out.

Some remains of the post-urban Harappan culture (1900-1200 BCE) are found in Pakistan, central and western India, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Delhi. They broadly cover the period from 1900 to 1200 BC. Post-urban Harappan cultures were mainly Chalcolithic in which tools of stone and copper were used. They did not make use of metal objects although they used axes, chisels, knives, bangles, curved razors, fish-hooks, and spearheads. It appears that after the end of the urban Harappan culture in 1900 BCE, there was some exchange between the Indo-Aryan and the existing cultures.
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