IEP GPI Report: Highlights and Reference to India

IEP GPI Report: Highlights and Reference to India

Question: Institute for Economic and Peace/IEP recently released the Global Peace Index which measures peace, its factors and economic value during the year 2015. Highlight the main recommendations of the GPI report and indicate special reference to India as well.

• Institute for Economic and Peace launched the Global Peace Index which measures peace, its economic value and causes

• GPI 2015 also ranked nations in terms of their security and peacefulness.

• The GPI was used to measure peace in 162 countries comprising 99.6% of the world population

References to India

• India was ranked at 143rd position in 2015, the same rank as the previous year

• Number of casualties from internal conflicts were on the rise in areas where Maoist insurgency runs rife

• India had the fourth largest expenditure for violence containment during 2014 pegged at USD 342 billion dollars on PPP basis. It followed the US, China and Russia

• The expenditure equals 4.7% of India’s GDP or USD 273 per individual

Highlights of the Report

• Many of the neighbouring nation scored better (Bhutan at 18, Nepal at 52, Bangladesh at 84 and Sri Lanka at 114) while others fared worse (Pakistan at 154 and Afghanistan at 160

• Index gauges global peace through 3 broad themes: level of safety and security in society, extent of global and domestic conflict, degree of militarisation

• Index analysed the impact of urbanisation on violence; peace was found to be directly correlated with higher levels of urbanisation

• Countries with feeble rule of law, high degree of intergroup grievances and massive inequality are more likely to experience the end of peace as urbanisation increases

• Domain became slightly more improved during 2014 with fall in rate of homicide and less likelihood of violent demonstrations

• Improvement was counterbalanced by deterioration in ongoing conflict and militarisation domains on account of deaths from internal conflict, lack of payment of UN peacekeeping dues and continued impact of terrorist activities

• GPI identified drivers of six major MENA conflicts in Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Iraq, Yemen and Libya. This includes challenges to government, growing sectarian divides and destabilising presence of ISIS as well as cross cutting proxy wars between Iran and Saudi Arabia arising from differences between Shia and Sunni Muslims

• This region was ranked as the least peaceful in the world, outdoing South Asia from 2014’s GPI

• Countries with weak internal peace were more likely to use military for internal suppression

• Large changes in militarisation were rare and driven by economic and geopolitical shifts on a global scale

• Global GPI score remained stable through with average stability of global peacefulness, some countries improved while others worsened

• Average country score fell by 2.4% over the past 8 years, showing that the world has become more insecure and less peaceful

• Iceland was found to be the most peaceful country in the world, after which Denmark and Austria ranked second and third

• Other nations in the top 10 included Finland, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and Czech Republic

• The largest improvement in peace was noted in Guinea Bissau resulting in rise of 24 places to rank 120. The next four large improvements were observed in the following states: Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Tajikistan and Benin

• Countries which were the largest improvers experienced fall in organised conflict

• Libya experienced the largest deterioration in the year as it fell 13 places to 149 to become the the 14th least peaceful nation across the globe

• Second biggest deterioration was noted for Ukraine on account of the conflict between Russian separatists and the government of Ukraine and instability caused by Russia’s annexing Crimea

• There was a steady increase in terrorism over the past 10 years, which showed no signs of abating. Death resulting from terrorism led to 61% deaths or 18,0000 people being killed. Of this figure, 82% occurred in 5 nations: Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria

• Threat of terrorism affected the most peaceful nations in the world and terrorists attacks tool place in France, Denmark and Australia in the previous year

• Economic impact of violence in the global economy in 2014 was considerable and pegged at USD 14.3 trillion dollars which is 13.4% of the world’s GDP

• From 2008 onwards, the total economic impact on global GDP has risen by 15.3% from USD 12.4 trillion dollars to 14.3.

• Major categories of expenditure were military spending at 43%, violent crime and homicide at 27% and internal security officers(including policing ) at 18%.

• Cost of UN peacekeeping has doubled since 2008, accounting for less than 0.17% of violence containment expenditure

• The report also highlighted the impact of peace on societal goals

• Positive peace is associated with outcomes which are desirable such as more competitive and stronger business environments, greater degree of well being and better performance on economic parameters

Facts and Stats

About Global Peace Index (GPI)

• GPI as a measure of world peace was launched in 2007.

• The 2015 release was 9th in the series

• This is the world’s leading measure of global peace produced by IEP

• Index comprises 23 indicators ranging from nation’s military expenditure level to its relations with neighbouring countries and percentage of prison population in 162 countries
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