Impact of earthquake on geography of a region

Impact of earthquake on geography of a region

Question:-Earthquakes are natural disasters that create destruction and damage to life, property, nature. Enumerate the impact of earthquake on the geography of the region affected by it.

- What is an earthquake?: Earthquakes one of the natural disasters are caused due to the tectonic movements along the geologic faults. The point underground where the earthquake has originated is known as the focus and the point directly above it is the epicenter.

- It is rare that earthquakes by themselves kill people or animals. It is generally the secondary part like building collapses, fires, tsunamis and volcanoes that contribute in a greater loss of life and property. Most of this could be avoided with the help of improved infrastructure, safety systems and warning and planning.

- Effects of earthquake on the geography: The effects of an earthquake are seen everywhere from lives, property to the environment. The effects on geography of a region can be summarized below.

1. Subsidence- The earth's surface subsides in comparison to the sea level.

2. Surface faulting- It is the displacement that reaches the earth's surface during a slip along the fault. It mostly occurs with
shallow earthquakes especially those with an epicenter of less than 20 km.

3. Tectonic uplift- The great Alaskan earthquake of 1964 saw an uplift of more than 9 feet.

4. Avalanches: A rapid flow of snow on a slope.

5. Liquefaction: Buildings can sink in soil that has a high water content which when shaken violently lose their mechanical strength
behaving like a fluid.

6. Landslides: These are caused commonly in steep river valleys and areas where rocks are lose.

7. Tsunami: Earthquakes in the sea floor or close to the coast may cause wall of waves.

8. Change in course of river: Rivers tend to change their course in light of tectonic upliftment or subsidence.

- Though these effects cannot be avoided, the resulting damage can be reduced with effective planning, structural changes in order to make them earthquake resistant and regular drills.

Facts and Figure:-

- The earth's surface consists of 20 constantly moving plates.

- The National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) records an average of
20,000 earthquakes every year (about 50 a day) around the world.

- A quake measuring 3 to 5 is considered minor or light; 5 to 7 is moderate to strong; 7 to 8 is major; and 8 or more is great.

- The deadliest known quake in history shook China in 1556, taking about 830,000 lives.

- 4 out of 5 of the world's earthquakes take place along the rim of the Pacific Ocean, a zone called the Pacific Ring of Fire.
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