NSSO 71st Round: Main Findings
NSSO 71st Round: Main Findings
Question: The National Sample Survey Organisation 71st Round January to June 2014 was recently conducted by the NSSO, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Discuss its main findings pertinent to social consumption of education across the rural and urban divide.
Main objective of this survey on Social Consumption Education is to assess the following:
- Participation of persons aged 5 to 29 years in pursuing education
- Extent of use of educational infrastructure, facilities and incentives provided by the Government
- Private expenditure by households on education
- Extent of educational wastage with respect to dropping out and discontinuance and its reasons
- IT literacy of persons aged 14 years and above
- Survey covered the entire nation with samples taken from 36,479 households in rural areas and 29,447 households in urban settings from 4577 villages and 3720 urban blocks
- Literacy rate among persons aged 7 years and above in India was 75%.In rural areas, literacy rate was pegged at 71% compared to 86% in urban areas
- Differences in literacy rate among persons age 7 and above was observed with male literacy rate being higher(83%) than female literacy rate (67%)
- Adult literacy for persons aged 15 years and above in India was 71%. For adults, literacy rates in rural areas were lower than urban areas and in rural areas, adult literacy rate was 64% compared to 84% in urban areas
- No significant difference was there between rural and urban India for distance for physical access to primary schooling.
- In rural as well as urban areas, around 99% households reported availability of primary school within 2 km from the house
- For the access of educational institutions, higher level of learning namely upper primary or secondary along with a lower proportion of households in rural areas as against urban areas reported the presence of such facilities within 2 km.
- Around 86% of the rural households and 96% of urban households had upper primary schools within a distance of 2 km from the house while around 60% of rural households and 91% of urban households reported secondary schools at this distance
- Proportion of persons with completed higher level of education of graduation or above was higher in urban than rural areas
- In rural areas, around 4.5% of males and 2.2% of females finished education level of graduation or above while in urban areas, 17% males and 13% females completed this level of education
- In rural and urban areas, a tiny proportion of people (around 1 percent) in the age group 5 to 29 years were enrolled but not attending educational institutions
- In rural areas, 58.7% of males and 53% of females in the 5 to 29 age group were attending educational institution. The percentage was 57% for males and 54.6% for females in urban areas
- Gross Attendance Ratio for primary level was close to 100% for males and females in urban as well as rural areas
- Gross Attendance Ratio at primary to higher secondary level was 91% for rural males and 88% for rural females, marginally lower as compared to 93% for males and females in the urban sector.
- Net Attendance Ratio in India at primary level for males was 84% for males and 83% for females in the age group 6 to 10 years, as per the official age group for Classes I to V
- No major rural-urban or male-female disparity exists at all India level till elementary stage(primary and upper primary) in the Net Attendance Ratio.
- Around 85% of the students aged 15 to 29 years in India were pursuing general education
- Around 12.6% and 2.4% students aged 15 to 29 years were attending technical/professional and vocational courses respectively
- Amidst the male students pursuing general education, around 46% were pursuing humanities as against 54% of female students.
- 35% of the male students were pursuing science as against 28% of female students
- 20% of male students were pursuing commerce as against 18% of female students
- For male students pursuing technical/professional education, 46% were pursuing engineering as against 29% of female students and 4% of male students studying medicine(including nursing) as against 14% of female students
- In rural areas, numerous students were attending government institutions primarily up to higher secondary level, while the scenario was different in urban areas
- In rural areas, 72% primary level students, 76% upper primary level students and 64% secondary and higher secondary level attended government institutions
- Around 94% of students from rural areas and 87% of students from urban areas at primary level in government institutions received free education
- At upper primary level, 89% of the students in rural areas and 80% in urban areas studying in government institutions were receiving free education
- At secondary and higher secondary level, 58% of students in rural areas and 52% in urban areas in government institutions received free education
- 63% of students at primary level and 62% in upper primary level received mid-day meal
- At the all India level, around 26% of the students adopted private coaching
- Average expenditure for each student incurred or to be incurred during the present academic session was INR 6788 for general education, INR 62841 for technical/professional other than vocational education and INR 27676 for vocational course
- At primary levels, expenditure per student in urban areas was INR 10083 which was 4 times more than rural areas(INR 2811)
- Average expenditure on technical education in private aided and unaided institutes varied nearly 1.5 to 2.5 times that of government institutions
- Around 46% of expenditure was for general education and 73% of expenditure on technical education was for course fee
- For students pursuing general courses, 15% was spent on private coaching as against 3% for technical/professional or vocational education
- In India, close to 11% of persons aged 5 to 29 in rural areas and 6 percent in urban areas have not enrolled in an educational institution
- The proportion of persons aged 5 to 29 dropping out or with discontinued studies were 33% in rural areas and 38% in urban areas
- Males of age 5 to 29 engaged in economic activities and therefore dropping out were 30% in rural areas and 34% in urban areas whereas for females, dominant reason was involvement in domestic activities (33% in rural areas and 23% in urban areas)
- In rural areas, major reason for never enrolment for students aged 5 to 29 years was not interested in education(27 percent female and 33 percent male) while in urban areas, around 33% males and 30% females in the age group 5 to 29 never enrolled due to financial constraints
- Around 6% of rural households and 29% of urban households had a computer
- In the nation, among households with one member of age 14 years and above, around 27% had internet access in the survey year 2014
- Proportion was 16% among rural households and 49% in urban areas
- For persons aged 14 to 29 years, around 18% were in rural areas and 49% in urban areas were able to operate a computer
Facts and Stats
- In rural areas, literacy rate was 71% compared to 86% in urban areas.
- Of persons aged 7 years and above, male literacy is considerably higher (83%) than female literacy(67%).
- It was found in rural areas that nearly 4.5% of males and 2.2% of females completed education of “graduation and above”
- In urban areas, 17% of males and 13% of females finished this level of education
- In most countries, government spend a considerable amount of financial resources on creation and running of educational infrastructure
- For availing such facilities, individuals pursuing education also incur tuition fees, examination fees, charges for stationary and books etc