President of India - General studies questions and answers

President of India - General studies questions Prelims

The President of India is the first citizen of India and he is the head of the Indian State. The President is the supposed to act as the symbol of the unity, integrity, and solidarity of the nation.

1) What is the eligibility for being the President of India?

For occupying the post of the President, a person must fulfill the following criteria:

a) He should be a citizen of India.

b) He should have completed 35 years of age

c) He should be qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha.

d) He should not hold any office of profit under the Union government or any state government or any local authority or any other public authority. (However, a sitting President, Vice-President, Governor of any state and a minister of the Union or any state is not deemed to hold any office of profit and is thus qualified as being a Presidential candidate)

2) What are the main components of the Oath taken by the President of India?

Prior to his admission in the office the President has to take an oath, which has the following chief components:

a) The President swears to faithfully execute the office
b) The President swears to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law
c)The President swears to devote himself to the service and well-being of the people in India

The President must take his oath under the administration of the Chief Justice of India (CJI) , and if he is absent, then it has to taken under the administration of the senior-most judge of the Supreme Court

3) Who directly participates in the election of the President of India?

The election of the President takes place not directly by the people of India but by their following representatives:

a) the elected members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
b) the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the state
c)the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the Union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry

4) Who does NOT participate in the election of the President of India?

Following members do NOT participate in the election of the President:

a) Nominated members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha
b) Nominated members of State legislative assemblies
c) Both elected and nominated members of the State legislative council
d) Nominated members of the Legislative Assemblies of Delhi and Puducherry

5) What is the process of election of the President of India?

Article 55 of the Constitution details the procedure of electing the President.

The nominations for the Presidential election must be subscribed by at least 50 electors as proposers and another 50 electors as seconders. A system of 'Proportional Representation' and a method of 'single transferable vote' are used to elect the President.

Each of the electing members are granted different number of votes depending different electoral formulas.

It is the Supreme Court alone which reserves the right to adjudicate on matters regarding the election of the President.

6) What is the term of the President's office in India?

The term of the President's office is 5 years. Unlike the American President who can only be elected at most two times, the President of India can be elected any number of times.

So far, only Dr Rajendra Prasad has occupied the post of President for two consecutive terms

7) Can the President of India be impeached? If yes, how?

So far, no President has been impeached, but in theory he can be impeached. If he is found to be in violation of the Constitution. The process of his impeachment can begin either in Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha, and if both the Houses agree on the impeachment, the President is removed from his post.

8) What are the important Executive Powers of the President of India?

1) The Government of India takes all its Executive decisions in the name of the President
2) The President appoints the Prime Minister, other ministers, attorney general of India, comptroller and auditor general of India , chief election commissioner, chairman and members of UPSC, governor, etc
3) The President can appoint a commission to investigate into the conditions of SC's , ST's and OBC's.

9) What are the Military Powers of the President of India?

1) The President is the supreme commander of the defense forces of India.
2) Depending upon the approval of the Parliament, the President can declare war or peace.
3) He appoints the chief of Army, Navy, and Air Force.

10) What are the important Legislative Powers of the President of India?

1) With regards to a Bill sent to him, the President can either:

a) give assent to the bill
b) withhold his assent
c) return the Bill (unless it's a money bill) for reconsideration, but he is obliged to give his assent if the Bill returns again after reconsideration

2) The President nominates 12 members of Rajya Sabha according to their fields of expertise

3) The President can dissolve the Lok Sabha and summon or prorogue the Parliament

4) The President's prior recommendation is necessary for the introduction of a money Bill

11) What are the 3 veto powers granted to the President of India? Explain them in short.

Veto is the Latin word for 'forbid'. For different situations and different Bills, the President is granted with different Veto powers. They are:

a) Absolute Veto
b) Suspensive Veto
c) Pocket Veto

The one Veto which is NOT granted to the President is the 'Qualified Veto'.

a) Absolute Veto: This Veto grants the President the power to reject a bill passed by the Parliament.

b) Suspensive Veto: This Veto grants the President the power to return the Bill for reconsideration, but if that bill returns, the President must give his assent.

c) Pocket Veto: This grants the President the power to withhold his decision, and thus the Bill, for an indefinite period of time. This is possible because the Constitution does not grant any time-limit for him to take the decision.

12) Can the President of India also Veto an Amendment Bill?

No. As per the 24th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1971, the President's assent to constitutional amendments bill is made obligatory.

13) What is an Ordinance?

An ordinance can be deemed as a temporary law that have the same power as that of a Bill. The President is given the power to issue ordinances and this could be said to his most important power.

The President is granted the power to issue ordinances according to the Article 123 of our Constitution.

14) Ordinance-making power of President of India is subject to which limitations and conditions?

The issuing of an ordinance is subject to various limitations and conditions. Some of these limitations are:

a) Ordinance can be issued only when both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha are not in session or only one of them is in session.

b) The President's decision to promulgate an ordinance is subject to judicial action in case it is found to be malafide

c) The President can issue ordinances subject to the advice of Prime Minister and his council of Ministers

d) The scope of the ordinance is limited to the subjects on which the Parliament itself is allowed to make laws

e) An ordinance is not superior to the Constitution has must follow it too. For example, an ordinance cannot breach Fundamental Rights.

15) What are the 5 Pardoning Powers of the President of India? Explain them in short.

a) Respite
b) Remission
c) Commutation
d) Reprieve
e) Pardon

a) Respite: in presence of a special circumstance, like physical disability, the President can award a lesser sentence than the one that was originally granted

b) Remission: in above case of 'respite', there was a change in the very nature of the punishment. But, in remission, the basic punishment remains the same but the duration is shortened

c) Commutation: The President can substitute one harsher punishment with some lighter form, like changing a death sentence to a life sentence

d) Reprieve: This grants a temporary stay on the execution of the sentence, allowing some time for the convict

e) Pardon: This completely absolves the person from all types punishments and disqualifications

16) Who are the only 2 Indian Presidents to have died during their term of office?

a) Dr Zakir Hussain (3rd President of India / 8 February 1897 –3 May 1969)

b) Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (5th President of India/ 13 May 1905 – 11 February 1977)
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