Steps to End Manual Scavenging in India
Steps to End Manual Scavenging in IndiaQuestion: Manual scavenging has been imposed on India due to absence of adequate sanitation facilities. What steps has the government of India taken to end manual scavenging in India?
- The National Scheme for Liberation and Rehabilitation of Scavengers and their Dependents (NSLRS) was started for providing alternative employment to the ex scavengers and their dependents.
- Parliament has enacted Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act 1993
- Act provides that dry latrines should not be constructed or used and no one should be made to engage in manual scavenging
- Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers was introduced in January 2007
- 18 States/UTs have confirmed disbursement of loan for alternative occupations to 78,941 eligible and willing beneficiaries by June 2010
- Parliament has passed the Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and Their Rehabilitation Act 2013 which came into force from December 6th, 2013
- The act has taken on more preventative actions than previous legislations for ending manual scavenging
- National Commission for Safai Karamcharis has been launched to monitor implementation of the act
- SRMS has been revised in November 2013 to provide one time cash assistance of INR 40,000 to ex manual scavengers and enhancement of maximum project cost from INR 5 to 10 lakh and INR 15 lakh and the training period from 1 to 2 years
- Revision of monthly stipend has been undertaken as has enhancement of cash subsidy
- Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has rehabilitated manual scavengers through the Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers
- Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has also worked with NGOs like Sulabh International, Rashtriya Garima Abhiyan and Safai Karamchari Andolan for rehabilitating manual scavengers
- Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation under Swacch Bharat Mission Grameen has offered assistance of INR 12,000 with 9000 being under Central Grant and 3000 under State or IT
- Under this scheme, 1.89 lakh insanitary latrines have been located of which 1.56 lakh are dry toilets and 1.13 lakh have been converted into sanitary toilets
- Ministry of Urban Development provides grant of INR 4000 for conversion of insanitary latrines
- Construction and up gradation of mud or dilapidated houses has been provided under the Indira Awas Yojana
- "Pre Matric Scholarship to the Children of those engaged in Occupations involving cleaning and prone to health hazards”, being implemented by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, awards the children of manual scavengers scholarship @ Rs. 110 to Rs. 700 per month.
Facts and Stats
- Houselisting and Housing Census 2011 has reported there are 26 lakh insanitary latrines in the nation
- 12 States have identified 12,000 manual scavengers; one time bank assistance of INR 40,000 has been provided to 6,600 of these
- National Safai Karamcharis Finance and Development Corporation has adopted a camp approach for mobilisation of ex manual scavengers and rehabilitation of manual scavengers and their dependents