String of Pearl Theory - Motives and India's counter Reaction

String of Pearl Theory - Motives and India's counter Reaction

Q. Explain String of Pearl theory and motives behind it. Also explain India's counter reaction to it

What is string of pearls?

– “String of Pearls” is the theory developed by Booz Allen
– Geopolitical theory underlines China’s rising influence in Indian Ocean.
– It has geopolitical, economic ,diplomatic and military importance
– Encirclement of India

Under this theory China is going to develop

1. Sittwe : Naval base.

2. Chittagong : Port at Bangladesh with container shipping facility.

3. Hambantota : Port being developed in Sri Lanka.

4. Maldives: Port of Marao

5. Gwadar : Port of Pakistan with Navy base.

6. Coco Islands : A runway and other infrastructure is being developed

7. Seychelles Islands : Naval base

8. Madagascar: Various infrastructure projects.

9. Tanzania : For development of port of Bagamoyo

10.Sudan : several major choke points such as the Strait of Mandeb;Number of infrastructure projects

Motives behind string of pearls theory

1. Ensuring energy security and protect its sea lines of communication (SLOCs) which faces a threats from state and non-state actors.

2. Access to new market

3. Control over value chain and supply routes

4. Social development and internal/domestic political stability

5. Competing against other interested parties .i.e India, US, Japan

6. Unblocking of choke point i.e strait of Malacca, strait of Hormuz

7. "encirclement" or to keep India strategically off-balance in the region

8. Support for its contender position of superpower by exercising hard and soft power on south Asian countries

How India is dealing with it?

1. In Myanmar, it is developing the Sittwe port.

2. Substantial monetary aid from India to The Tripartite Technical Expert Group (TTEG) consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore at choke point of Malacca Straits

3. Presence in the IOR by setting up listening posts in Seychelles, Mozambique, Madagascar, and Mauritius.

4. Air base in Maldives

5. India has also gained berthing rights in Oman and Vietnam

6. India’s state-run explorer, OVL signed a three-year deal with PetroVietnam for developing long-term cooperation in the oil sector

7. Cordial relation with Japan

8. Increased co-operation with USA

9. An air base in Tajikistan and electronic monitoring facilities in Mongolia.

10. Growing defense relationship with Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Vietnam, Mongolia.

11. Radar station on Narcondam Island in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, located opposite the Coco Island.
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