Tribal Land Acquisition - Protection by Government

Tribal Land Acquisition - Protection by Government

Question:-How is the government helping the tribals from the problem of land acquisition?

Earlier the tribals in India used to dwell in the hilly region and in the forest areas. They depended on forest products for their livelihood.

Around 90% of the tribal areas in India are rich in minerals. For example, the Niyamgiri hills of Odisha which is the home for Dongria Kondh tribes are rich in bauxite.

After the independence, many private firms exploited the tribal areas that were rich in minerals and forest products. The tribals were denied of their share in minerals and the profit was enjoyed by the firms.

Due to loss of their habitat and livelihood, the tribals lived under poverty and malnutrition.

The government began to take certain steps in order to help the tribals from the issue of land acquisition.

- Forest Rights Act, 2006 – The Forest Rights Act was passed on December 18, 2006. The Act grants legal recognition to the rights of the tribal communities that dwell in the forests. It also gives an opportunity to the public to raise their voice for the forest conservation.

- PESA, 1996 – The Panchayat (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act 1996, was enacted by the Government of India on 24 December 1996 to enable the gram sabhas to manage their natural resources. It extends Panchayati Raj system in tribal areas and minimize the intervention by the government.

- Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act 2013 – The bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha on September 7, 2011 and received the assent of the President of India on 27 September 2013. The Act finally came into force on January 1, 2014. The Act provides a fair compensation to the affected families whose land has been snatched away from them. The act provides adequate provisions for the affected people for their rehabilitation and resettlement.

- The Land Acquisition ordinance 2015 - It seeks to address the grievances of the tribals by undertaking certain measures. It was compulsory to get the approval of the tribal councils and sabhas before taking any decision regarding their territories. Special benefits are given in case of any dislocation to the tribals.

- A lot of tribal welfare programs are being added in the CSR activities.

- Before any new project takes place in the tribal areas, rehabilitation and compensation should be given to the tribals who are affected.

- Tribal welfare ministries are formed at the Center and State level to deal with the problem of land acquisition.

- MNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act) has been implemented at all the tribal areas of the nation.

Facts and Figures

- Due to the project of Ukai reservoir, around 52000 were displaced from the state of Gujarat.

- Out of the 76 left wing extremist affected districts in India, 32 are PESA districts.

- Due to the project of Upper Indravati, around 89% were displaced in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
Post your comment