Tuberculosis- eradication with help of new techniques (CBNAAT)

Tuberculosis- eradication with help of new techniques (CBNAAT)

Question:-Write about the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program that has helped eradicate tuberculosis with special reference to CBNAAT launched in Mysore.

One of the state run tuberculosis control initiative of Government of India, the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) incorporates the principles of Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS). During the first phase of RNTCP (1998–2005), the program focused on ensuring the expansion of quality DOTS services to the entire country.

DOTS is a systematic strategy which has five components mentioned below:

1. Political and administrative commitment: Since TB is a curable and reversible epidemic, top priority is sanctioned by the government of India.

2. Good quality diagnosis: Good quality microscopy lets health workers see the tubercle bacilli and diagnose properly.

3. Good quality drugs: A box of medication is provided by the RNTCP for the entire treatment for every person registered.

4. Supervised treatment to ensure the right treatment: The best available medication is used in the right manner.

5. Systematic monitoring and accountability: Systematic reporting system, and the technique of ‘cohort analysis’ is used to keep an account of every individual who has been treated.

In the second phase, approved for five years from October 2006 to September 2011, the program aims to consolidate the achievements made to date, in order to widen services both in terms of activities and access, along with sustaining those achievements.

Expansion and enhancement of DOTS, addressing TB-HIV, MDR-TB, involvement of health care providers, engaging people affected with TB, contributing to strengthening the health system and involving research have all contributed in the eradication of TB. Thus quality and free of cost drugs across the country along with increasing private-sector DOTS provider are benefiting the common man.

Launching of CBNAAT in Mysore: Under RNTCP, Mysore is among the seven cities to receive sate of art facility for quicker screening of TB cases where the cartridge-based Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (CBNAAT) equipment was installed at K.R. Hospital. The equipment that cost around 40 lakh was launched by the district Health Officer H.T. Puttaswamy.

In a span of two hours the hi-tech equipment could detect cases of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, whereas the older existing machine in the hospital needed two days to detect the same.

Along with Mysore, the equipment is introduced in Jamkhandi, Bagalkot, Bowring Hospital in Bengaluru, Belgaum, Davangere and Gulbarga.

Once detected, patients must compulsorily take medicines during the intense phase that lasts for two months, making the treatment effective. During the continuous phase too they can take medication at home but have to follow up with the department and collect medications showing the empty strip.

Facts and Figures:

- TB is an infectious bacterial disease Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

- India has had an on-going National TB Program, NTP since 1962.

- The Xpert MTB/RIF is a cartridge-based, automated diagnostic test that can identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

- In December 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) endorsed the Xpert MTB/RIF for use in TB endemic countries.
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