United Nations Security Council ( UNSC) - - Establishment & Functions
United Nations Security Council (UNSC) - Establishment & Functions
•Establishment – 1946
•Type of organization - Intergovernmental organization; one of six organs of UN.
• Headquarter – New York
•Permanent members - Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, and the United States
•Formation – 5 permanent members + 10 non-permanent members, elected on a regional basis to serve two-year terms.
•Presidency - rotates monthly among its members.
• Was created following World War II maintaining world peace; 2 phases
1. In early decades, the body was largelyineffective because of Cold War division between the US and USSR and their allies, though it authorized interventions in the Korean War and the Congo Crisis and peacekeeping missions in the Suez Crisis, Cyprus, and West New Guinea.
2. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, UN peacekeeping efforts increased dramatically in scale, and the Security Council authorized major military and peacekeeping missions in Kuwait, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Functioning - include the establishment of peacekeeping operations, the establishment of international sanctions, and the authorization of military action through Security Council resolutions; it is the only UN body with the authority to issue binding resolutions to member states.
Reasons for failure
1. Lack of reliable military resources
2. exclusive nuclear club formed by permanent members
3. Excessive power in terms of veto right in hands of permanent members
4. The present structure does not reflect post-World War II power structure
• G4 nations – India, Japan , Brazil and Germany aspire to become permanent members
• Also representation from Africa has been suggested.