Urbanization - Pros & Cons, Characteristics of urbanization in India, Govt. initiatives to tackle related problems
Urbanization – Pros & Cons, Characteristics of urbanization in India, Govt. initiatives to tackle problems
What is Urbanization? List out positive and negative outcomes of growing Urbanization in India? Also elaborate characteristics of urbanization in India and throw some light on government initiatives for tackling the problem created due to urbanization.
What is Urbanization?
– Urbanization is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities. Urbanization is a process of becoming urban, moving to cities, changing from agriculture to other pursuits common to cities.
– According to the census of India, 2011 - approximately 32 % of the population lives in urban India.
Criteria to decide if a city is urban -
For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is as follows:
1. All places with a municipality, corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc.
2. All other places which satisfied the following criteria:
a) A minimum population of 5,000;
b) At least 75% of the male main working population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits; and
c) A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km.
Causes of Urbanization
1. Growing Industrialization
1. Population pressure
2. Employment opportunities
3. In hope of better standard of living
4. Decrease in death rate and growing birth rate
5. In search of social mobility and fortune
6. Demand of labor by private sector post 1992
Positive outcomes of Urbanization
a. Growth of service sector oriented economy over agricultural economy
b. Boost to Infrastructure development
c. Increased productivity and economic growth
d. Growth of trade and commerce
e. Growth of tourism
a) Spread of education
b) Women empowerment and Gender Equality
c) Spread of Modern technology
d) Availability of medical facility and increase in life expectancy
e) Social and cultural integration
a) Active involvement in politics
b) Increased public awareness
Negatives outcomes of Urbanization
a) Growing rift between rich and poor
b) Increased cost of living
c) Conflict over scare resources like land, water etc.
d) Decrees in agricultural productivity
a) Growing criminalization in society
b) Overpopulation causing accommodation problem and problem of slum
c) Unemployment or underemployment
d) Providing basic amenities becoming a challenge
e) Change in structure of family system
a) Pollution (Land, air, water)
b) Sewage and garbage management problems
b) Loss of habitat and Biodiversity
d) Loss of forest cover and depletion of wildlife
a) Psychological problems like Stress
b) Spread of contiguous diseases
c) Drug abuse
d) Increase in lifestyle diseases
Characteristic of Indian urbanization
1. Highest growth rate of urbanization especially in the mega, Class I and metropolitan cities
as compared to small cities
2. Informal settlements occupy one-third of the area in large urban centres such as Mumbai, Kolkata, and Chennai
3. City planning focused only on legitimate area
4. Growing regionalism in face of a migration
5. Increase in slums followed by poverty, unemployment, exploitation, inequality, degradation of quality of life
6. Urbanization occurs due to rural push
7. Demographic explosion in few areas
8. It has occurred without much industrialization. (Service sector growth)
9. Southern India is more urbanized than Northern and Eastern India.
10. Five year plan provides the guideline for urbanization.
Various government schemes to tackle problem of Urbanization
1. Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission - for providing urban amenities in rural areas.
2. JNNURM(Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban renewal mission) in 2005
for focused and integrated development of the urban infrastructure and services
3. Rajiv Awas Yojana 2011 for creating “slum free India”
4. Skill India scheme March 2015 for skill development and entrepreneurship
5. The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act for Establisment of ULB became mandatory and provision for regular elections
6. National Urban Transport Policy, 2006 to address the transport needs of city dwellers
7. Smart city initiative 2014 for creating 100 smart cities
8. Swachh Bharat 2014 for clean urban area
9. Din Dayal Antyodaya – To provide employment opportunities to poor.
Besides this some government initiatives are required for
1. Empowerment of Urban local bodies and more revenue sources
2. Effective town planning with inclusive cities
3. Green buildings
4. BRTS, Metro rail, car-pooling for traffic problems
5. Linking technology with fair price shops
6. Effective waste management for energy generation
7. Police reforms to check organized crime
8. PPP model for infrastructure development