US Russia relations in space exploration.

US Russia relations in space exploration.

Question:- Despite rising diplomatic tensions over the crisis in Ukraine , Russia and US NASA and the Roscosmos continue to share cordial relations and have launched joint projects. Explain US Russia relations in space exploration.

- The International Space Station has been one of the most politically complex space exploration program. Space agencies that are international partners provide and operate elements of the International Space Station. US, Russia, Europe, Canada and Japan are the principal agencies.

- The construction, assembly and operation of the International Space Station works with the support of facilities on earth which are managed by the agencies and countries that are part of the program.

- Collaboration between US and Russia in space missions goes back to 1970s marked by the joint mission of Apollo-Soyuz. This gained momentum in 1980s. Both the countries chose to focus on the space efforts with a combination of national security and foreign policy objectives. This made space an area for active competition.

- With the collapse of Soviet Union and its ideologies, the drive for the competition in space too declined. As the US space shuttle program ended in 2011, Russia's Soyuz rockets remained the sole means of transport for the astronauts to and from ISS, along with carrying important supplies.

- The strained relations between the two countries were characterized by times of mistrust and upfront hostility like the incidents of Cuban missile crisis, Vietnam war, Soviet invasion of Afghanistan etc. The countries made an effort to increase cooperation where possible and stayed at a distance cutting ties when relations worsened.

- Although politics should be overlooked in areas like space exploration, it will still be a determining factor in Russia continuing its forehand in rocket engine production and development.

- US Russian cooperation is visible in the ISS, probably the only areas not affected by Ukraine crisis and as per records the next joint mission is to be launched soon from Kazakhstan.

- Although the research outpost has been divided into Russian and American sections, neither of them can run it on their own, they need the support of each other.

- On the other hand, American sector provides the power to run the entire project with Russian cosmonauts relying on NASA's enhanced communication system.

- The countries will embark on a new, integrated set of space program involving such standards and systems that would be very crucial to missions and stations in the coming future.


- The countries will develop "SMOTR" remote sensing satellites.

- Development of the manned Mars mission of which landing will happen after 2035.

- Further assembly of ISS Russian segment- development of Multipurpose Laboratory Module, in collaboration with Krunichev Space Centre and "Oka" space production modules.
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