Explain the meaning of Kernal.

Explain the meaning of Kernal. 

- The kernel is the essential center of a computer operating system, the core that provides basic services for all other parts of the operating system.

- As a basic component of an operating system, a kernel provides the lowest-level abstraction layer for the resources.

- The kernel's primary purpose is to manage the computer's resources and allow other programs to run and use the resources like the CPU, memory and the I/O devices in the computer.

The facilities provides by the kernel are :

a. Memory management - The kernel has full access to the system's memory and must allow processes to access safely this memory as they require it.
b. Device management - To perform useful functions, processes need access to the peripherals connected to the computer, which are controlled by the kernel through device drivers
c. System calls - To actually perform useful work, a process must be able to access the services provided by the kernel.

Types of Kernel:

a. Monolithic kernels

Every part which is to be accessed by most programs which cannot be put in a library is in the kernel space: 
- Device drivers 
- Scheduler 
- Memory handling 
- File systems 
- Network stacks

b. Microkernels

In Microkernels, parts which really require to be in a privileged mode are in kernel space:
- Inter-Process Communication, 
- Basic scheduling 
- Basic memory handling 
- Basic I/O primitives

Due to this, some critical parts like below run in user space:

a. The complete scheduler
b. Memory handling
c. File systems
d. Network stacks

Explain the meaning of Kernel.

Kernel is the core module of an operating system. It is the kernel that loads first and retain in main memory of the computer system. It provides all essential operations /services those are needed by applications. Kernel takes the responsibility of managing the memory, task, disk and process.
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