Sql server - What is fill factor and pad index?

What is fill factor and pad index?

A fill factor is a specification done during the creation of indexes so that a particular amount of space can be left on a leaf level page to decrease the occurrence of page splits when the data has to be accommodated in the future.

A pad index specifies index padding. When it is set to ON, then the free space percentage per the fill factor specification is applied to the intermediate-level pages of the index. When it is set to OFF, the fill factor is not specified and enough space is left for a maximum size row that an index can have
Sql server - Describe important index characteristics
The characteristics of the indexes are: They fasten the searching of a row. They are sorted by the Key values........
Sql server - What are the types of indexes?
Types of indexes: Clustered: It sorts and stores the data row of the table or view in order based on the index key.........
Sql server - Describe the purpose of indexes
Allow the server to retrieve requested data, in as few I/O operations.......
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