Spanning-Tree protocols - Networking

Explain Spanning-Tree protocols.

Spanning Trees are a standard technique implemented in LAN connections. On a mesh topology, a set of spanning tree algorithms were developed for prevention of redundant transmission of data along intermediate hops between a source and a destination host. In the absence of spanning trees, a mesh network is flooded and rendered unusable by messages by circulating within a loop that is infinite, between hosts. An algorithm used in transparent bridges which determines the best path from source to destination to avoid bridge loops.

At the time of STP initialization in a network, its first action is to utilize the Spanning Tree Algorithm for selection of a root bridge and a root port. The root bridge is the ne which has lowest-value bridge identifier. All the switches on the network use Bridge Protocol Data Units to broadcast the bridge IDs to the other switches in that network. Soon after selection of the root bridge, determination of the root ports on all other bridges is done.
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