Explain forbidden clones.
Clones refer to producing genetically identical individuals. Forbidden clones
refer to clones of those cells which had immunological reactivity with self
antigens. Embryonic life is eliminated from these types of clones. Such type of
clones is called ‘forbidden clones’.
Explain gram staining method.
This method is used to identify bacterial species into two communities i.e. Gram
positive and gram negative. This method is based on chemical and physical
properties of their cell walls. It can be used to detect peptidoglycan, which
is present in a thick layer in Gram positive bacteria. Purple/blue colour
refers to the gram positive bacteria. Red colour stain refers to the gram
negative bacteria. This method is very popularly used in the identification of
Explain method of perfusion. State some of its drawbacks.
Perfusion is the process of delivery of blood to a capillary bed in the
biological tissue. Tests of adequate perfusion are a part of the patient
assessment process performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common
methods include evaluating skin color, temperature, condition and capillary
refill. Perfusion can be of two types over perfusion and under perfusion. Types
of perfusion is classified according to the average level of perfusion across
all tissues in an individual body, Tissues like the heart are considered
overperfused and receive more blood than would be expected to meet the
metabolic needs of the tissue.