India’s Biodiversity: Research Findings

India’s Biodiversity: Research Findings

Question : India is known for its rich biodiversity and high endemism. Elaborate.

- India is among the top 10 species rich nations in the world

- It is known for rich biodiversity and high endemism

- BSI and ZSI have conducted surveys to assess the state of flora and fauna in India.

- Research Findings

- Survey and exploration of differing geographical regions of the world has resulted in national reference collection of 3 million plant specimen

- Indian flora accounts for as high as 11.4% of the total recorded plant species across the globe

- India has 47, 791 species of plants comprising the following, as per BSI estimates:

- Virus/Bacteria (1, 071),

- Algae (7, 309),

- Fungi (14, 936),

- Lichens (2, 434),

- Bryophytes (2, 531),

- Pteridophytes (1, 274),

- Gymnosperms (77) and

- Angiosperms (18, 159)

- ZSI has recorded over 96,000 species of animals from India

- IUCN has assessed 18 species of amphibians, 14 fishes, 13 bird species and 10 mammals as critically endangered; 310 species as endangered, including 69 fishes, 38 mammals and 32 amphibians.

Facts and Stats

- Wildlife Protection Act has been enacted for protection of wildlife against hunting as well as commercial exploitation

- Wildlife Crime Control Bureau has been set up to prevent poaching and illegal trade in wildlife

- National Biodiversity Act 2002 aims to protect plant species and their habitats through state wise identification and conservation of the same

- The Government has established the National Adaptation Fund on Climate Change (NAFCC) with a budget provision of Rs. 350 Crores for the year 2015-16 and 2016-17, with an estimated requirement of Rs. 181.5 Crores for financial year 2017-18.

- The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has been appointed as National Implementing Entity (NIE) under the NAFCC.
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