HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) is a stateless protocol, which means a new
instance of the web page class is re-created each time the page is posted to
the server. It is a communication protocol which is implemented in the "World
Wide Web (WWW)". It is a request/response style protocol. Clients (browsers)
will request to a server (web server) and the server responds to these
requests. Since HTTP is stateless, managing state in web applications is
challenging. State management techniques are used to maintain user state
throughout the application. The following are the commonly used state
Storing information on the client has the following advantages:
Better scalability. If a Web site has thousands (or lacks) of
simultaneous users, the memory consumed by storing state management information
can be limited. Storing the information to the clients removes this problem and
frees the server to use its resources to serve more requests.
Supports multiple Web servers: With client-side state
management, you can distribute
Incoming requests across multiple Web servers (or a Web farm).
Storing information on the server has the following advantages:
Better security Client-side state management information can be
captured and maliciously modified. Therefore, we should never use client-side
state management to store confidential information such as a password,
authorization level, or authentication status.
Reduced bandwidth If you store large amounts of state
management information, sending that information from client to server can
increase bandwidth utilization and page load times, potentially increasing your
costs and reducing scalability.
Client Based State Management
View state, control state, hidden fields, cookies, and query strings all stores
the data on the client in various ways.
The Page.ViewState property provides a dictionary object for storing values
between multiple requests for the same page. The page uses this method to
preserve page and control property values between round trips.
//Writing to view state
//Read from view state
String myData = (string) ViewState ["MyVar"];
ViewState data available only within the page not on the other page.
The ControlState property allows you to persist property information that is
specific to a control and cannot be turned off like the ViewState property.
You can store information in a HiddenField control, which renders as a standard
HTML hidden field. A hidden field does not visible in the browser, but you can
set its properties just as you can with a standard control. Like view state,
hidden fields only store information for a single page. Therefore, they are not
useful for storing session data that is used between page requests.
A cookie is a small amount of data that is stored either in a text file on the
client file system or in-memory in the client browser session. It contains
site-specific information that the server sends to the client along with page
Server Based State Management
Application state, session state, and profile properties all store data in
memory on the server.
Application state is an instance of the HttpApplicationState class. It is a
global storage mechanism .Thus you can access Application state data from all
pages in the Web application. So, application state is useful for storing
information that needs to be maintained between server round trips and between
requests for pages
Storing and retrieving data
Application ["Message"] = "Welcome to the CarrerRide.”
If (Application ["Message"]! = null)
Supports multiple Web serversString message = (String) Application ["Message"];
Application_Start : The Application_Start event is raised when
your application is started first time. This event is useful for initializing
variables that are scoped at the application level. Application_End : The Application_End event is raised when
your application stops Application_Error : It is raised when an unhandled error
occurs Application_LogRequest: This event is raised when a request
has been made to the application. Application_PostLogRequest: It is raised after the logging of
a request has completed.
ASP.NET session state enables you to store and retrieve values for a user as the
user navigates ASP.NET pages. It is secure, transparent from users and we can
store any kind of object within it. Session object is an instance of the
HttpSessionState class. It is scoped to the current browser session.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Session.
It helps to maintain user states and data to all over the application.
We can store any kind of object.
Stores every client data separately.
Session is secure and transparent from user.
Performance overhead in case of large volume of user, because of session data
stored in server memory.
Overhead involved in serializing and De-Serializing session Data. Because In
case of StateServer and SQLServer session mode we need to serialize the object
The following session modes are available in ASP.NET.